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Terrorists on the move : a legitimacy test of the criminal law approach on foreign fighters 
in Western-Europe

(2020) EUROPEAN CRIMINAL LAW REVIEW. 10(2). p.185-217
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Abstract
The conflict in Syria and Iraq has raised the debate on foreign fighters to unprecedented levels. The international community expressed grave concern over this acute and growing threat and addressed the problem by, inter alia, obliging States to criminalize conduct related to travel for terrorist purposes, including acts of facilitating and funding such travel. Member States are free to choose the manner of implementation, leading to different approaches on a domestic level. This contribution aims to subject the criminal law approach regarding foreign fighters in four Western-European countries (i.e. Belgium, the Netherlands, France and the United Kingdom) to a legitimacy test. The longstanding principles of subsidiarity, proportionality and legality constitute the backbone of this legitimacy test. A critical-legal analysis demonstrates the expansion of the scope of criminal liability to a pre-crime era and examines whether this expansion conflicts with the ultima ratio premise of criminal law and the freedom of movement as a fundamental human right.
Keywords
foreign (terrorist) fighter, travelling for terrorist purposes, designated areaoffence, criminalization, legitimacy, subsidiarity, ultima ratio, harm, proportionality, human rights, freedom of movement, legality

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Citation

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MLA
De Coensel, Stéphanie. “Terrorists on the Move : A Legitimacy Test of the Criminal Law Approach on Foreign Fighters  in Western-Europe.” EUROPEAN CRIMINAL LAW REVIEW, vol. 10, no. 2, 2020, pp. 185–217, doi:10.5771/2193-5505-2020-2-185.
APA
De Coensel, S. (2020). Terrorists on the move : a legitimacy test of the criminal law approach on foreign fighters  in Western-Europe. EUROPEAN CRIMINAL LAW REVIEW, 10(2), 185–217. https://doi.org/10.5771/2193-5505-2020-2-185
Chicago author-date
De Coensel, Stéphanie. 2020. “Terrorists on the Move : A Legitimacy Test of the Criminal Law Approach on Foreign Fighters  in Western-Europe.” EUROPEAN CRIMINAL LAW REVIEW 10 (2): 185–217. https://doi.org/10.5771/2193-5505-2020-2-185.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
De Coensel, Stéphanie. 2020. “Terrorists on the Move : A Legitimacy Test of the Criminal Law Approach on Foreign Fighters  in Western-Europe.” EUROPEAN CRIMINAL LAW REVIEW 10 (2): 185–217. doi:10.5771/2193-5505-2020-2-185.
Vancouver
1.
De Coensel S. Terrorists on the move : a legitimacy test of the criminal law approach on foreign fighters  in Western-Europe. EUROPEAN CRIMINAL LAW REVIEW. 2020;10(2):185–217.
IEEE
[1]
S. De Coensel, “Terrorists on the move : a legitimacy test of the criminal law approach on foreign fighters  in Western-Europe,” EUROPEAN CRIMINAL LAW REVIEW, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 185–217, 2020.
@article{8663511,
  abstract     = {{The conflict in Syria and Iraq has raised the debate on foreign fighters to unprecedented levels. The international community expressed grave concern over this acute and growing threat and addressed the problem by, inter alia, obliging States to criminalize conduct related to travel for terrorist purposes, including acts of facilitating and funding such travel. Member States are free to choose the manner of implementation, leading to different approaches on a domestic level. This contribution aims to subject the criminal law approach regarding foreign fighters in four Western-European countries (i.e. Belgium, the Netherlands, France and the United Kingdom) to a legitimacy test. The longstanding principles of subsidiarity, proportionality and legality constitute the backbone of this legitimacy test. A critical-legal analysis demonstrates the expansion of the scope of criminal liability to a pre-crime era and examines whether this expansion conflicts with the ultima ratio premise of criminal law and the freedom of movement as a fundamental human right.}},
  author       = {{De Coensel, Stéphanie}},
  issn         = {{2191-7442}},
  journal      = {{EUROPEAN CRIMINAL LAW REVIEW}},
  keywords     = {{foreign  (terrorist)  fighter,travelling  for  terrorist  purposes,designated  areaoffence,criminalization,legitimacy,subsidiarity,ultima  ratio,harm,proportionality,human rights,freedom of movement,legality}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{2}},
  pages        = {{185--217}},
  title        = {{Terrorists on the move : a legitimacy test of the criminal law approach on foreign fighters 
in Western-Europe}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.5771/2193-5505-2020-2-185}},
  volume       = {{10}},
  year         = {{2020}},
}

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