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Abstract
By modulating the structure, diversity, and trophic outputs of microbial communities, phages play crucial roles in many biomes. In oligotrophic polar deserts, the effects of katabatic winds, constrained nutrients, and low water availability are known to limit microbial activity. Although phages may substantially govern trophic interactions in cold deserts, relatively little is known regarding the precise ecological mechanisms. Here, we provide the first evidence of widespread antiphage innate immunity in Antarctic environments using metagenomic sequence data from hypolith communities as model systems. In particular, immunity systems such as DISARM and BREX are shown to be dominant systems in these communities. Additionally, we show a direct correlation between the CRISPR-Cas adaptive immunity and the metavirome of hypolith communities, suggesting the existence of dynamic host-phage interactions. In addition to providing the first exploration of immune systems in cold deserts, our results suggest that phages actively challenge niche communities in Antarctic polar deserts. We provide evidence suggesting that the regulatory role played by phages in this system is an important determinant of bacterial host interactions in this environment. IMPORTANCE In Antarctic environments, the combination of both abiotic and biotic stressors results in simple trophic levels dominated by microbiomes. Although the past two decades have revealed substantial insights regarding the diversity and structure of microbiomes, we lack mechanistic insights regarding community interactions and how phages may affect these. By providing the first evidence of widespread antiphage innate immunity, we shed light on phage-host dynamics in Antarctic niche communities. Our analyses reveal several antiphage defense systems, including DISARM and BREX, which appear to dominate in cold desert niche communities. In contrast, our analyses revealed that genes which encode antiphage adaptive immunity were underrepresented in these communities, suggesting lower infection frequencies in cold edaphic environments. We propose that by actively challenging niche communities, phages play crucial roles in the diversification of Antarctic communities.
Keywords
Antarctic soils, archaea, bacteria, hypoliths, phages, viromics, MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES, FUNCTIONAL-CAPACITY, CLASSIFICATION, DIVERSITY, ECOLOGY, RESISTANCE, VIRUSES, HOT, MICROORGANISMS, COEVOLUTION

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MLA
Bezuidt, Oliver K. I., et al. “Phages Actively Challenge Niche Communities in Antarctic Soils.” MSYSTEMS, vol. 5, no. 3, 2020, doi:10.1128/msystems.00234-20.
APA
Bezuidt, O. K. I., Lebre, P. H., Pierneef, R., León-Sobrino, C., Adriaenssens, E. M., Cowan, D. A., … Makhalanyane, T. P. (2020). Phages actively challenge niche communities in Antarctic soils. MSYSTEMS, 5(3). https://doi.org/10.1128/msystems.00234-20
Chicago author-date
Bezuidt, Oliver K. I., Pedro Humberto Lebre, Rian Pierneef, Carlos León-Sobrino, Evelien M. Adriaenssens, Don A. Cowan, Yves Van de Peer, and Thulani P. Makhalanyane. 2020. “Phages Actively Challenge Niche Communities in Antarctic Soils.” MSYSTEMS 5 (3). https://doi.org/10.1128/msystems.00234-20.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Bezuidt, Oliver K. I., Pedro Humberto Lebre, Rian Pierneef, Carlos León-Sobrino, Evelien M. Adriaenssens, Don A. Cowan, Yves Van de Peer, and Thulani P. Makhalanyane. 2020. “Phages Actively Challenge Niche Communities in Antarctic Soils.” MSYSTEMS 5 (3). doi:10.1128/msystems.00234-20.
Vancouver
1.
Bezuidt OKI, Lebre PH, Pierneef R, León-Sobrino C, Adriaenssens EM, Cowan DA, et al. Phages actively challenge niche communities in Antarctic soils. MSYSTEMS. 2020;5(3).
IEEE
[1]
O. K. I. Bezuidt et al., “Phages actively challenge niche communities in Antarctic soils,” MSYSTEMS, vol. 5, no. 3, 2020.
@article{8663238,
  abstract     = {By modulating the structure, diversity, and trophic outputs of microbial communities, phages play crucial roles in many biomes. In oligotrophic polar deserts, the effects of katabatic winds, constrained nutrients, and low water availability are known to limit microbial activity. Although phages may substantially govern trophic interactions in cold deserts, relatively little is known regarding the precise ecological mechanisms. Here, we provide the first evidence of widespread antiphage innate immunity in Antarctic environments using metagenomic sequence data from hypolith communities as model systems. In particular, immunity systems such as DISARM and BREX are shown to be dominant systems in these communities. Additionally, we show a direct correlation between the CRISPR-Cas adaptive immunity and the metavirome of hypolith communities, suggesting the existence of dynamic host-phage interactions. In addition to providing the first exploration of immune systems in cold deserts, our results suggest that phages actively challenge niche communities in Antarctic polar deserts. We provide evidence suggesting that the regulatory role played by phages in this system is an important determinant of bacterial host interactions in this environment.

IMPORTANCE In Antarctic environments, the combination of both abiotic and biotic stressors results in simple trophic levels dominated by microbiomes. Although the past two decades have revealed substantial insights regarding the diversity and structure of microbiomes, we lack mechanistic insights regarding community interactions and how phages may affect these. By providing the first evidence of widespread antiphage innate immunity, we shed light on phage-host dynamics in Antarctic niche communities. Our analyses reveal several antiphage defense systems, including DISARM and BREX, which appear to dominate in cold desert niche communities. In contrast, our analyses revealed that genes which encode antiphage adaptive immunity were underrepresented in these communities, suggesting lower infection frequencies in cold edaphic environments. We propose that by actively challenging niche communities, phages play crucial roles in the diversification of Antarctic communities.},
  articleno    = {e00234-20},
  author       = {Bezuidt, Oliver K. I. and Lebre, Pedro Humberto and Pierneef, Rian and León-Sobrino, Carlos and Adriaenssens, Evelien M. and Cowan, Don A. and Van de Peer, Yves and Makhalanyane, Thulani P.},
  issn         = {2379-5077},
  journal      = {MSYSTEMS},
  keywords     = {Antarctic soils,archaea,bacteria,hypoliths,phages,viromics,MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES,FUNCTIONAL-CAPACITY,CLASSIFICATION,DIVERSITY,ECOLOGY,RESISTANCE,VIRUSES,HOT,MICROORGANISMS,COEVOLUTION},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {12},
  title        = {Phages actively challenge niche communities in Antarctic soils},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/msystems.00234-20},
  volume       = {5},
  year         = {2020},
}

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