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Presence of anisakidae in commercial fish species imported into the Belgian food markets : a systematic review and meta-analyses

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Abstract
Anisakidae are marine zoonotic nematodes with most commercial fish species as intermediate hosts. Both public health risks and socio-economic problems are attributed to these larvae. Despite these concerns, the occurrence of Anisakidae in commercial fish species in Belgium remains unknown. Therefore, the main objective of this systematic review was to look into studies assessing the prevalence and intensity (level of infection) of Anisakidae in countries importing fish to the Belgian market. The databases of PubMed, Web of Science, Cordis, Google Scholar, Google, African Journals online and Asia Journals online were searched. Main eligibility criteria were: fish species consumed in Belgium; studies conducted in one of the main importing countries; and the availability of prevalence data. From the original 519 identified studies, 83 were included with data from Spain, Germany, Chile, Denmark, Turkey, France, China, England, Belgium, Norway, Iceland, Senegal and Sweden. Overall results show a widespread occurrence of Anisakidae with a high variability in prevalence between fish species and fishing sea. Cod (Gadus morhua) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo solar), the most consumed fish species in Belgium, have a mean prevalence of 33% and 5% respectively. Of all investigated fishing zones, fish caught in the Northeast Atlantic has the highest rate of infection (68%). Furthermore, higher prevalences were found when looking at the viscera (mean prevalence 59%) compared to the muscle (29%) and with superior techniques such as enzymatic digestion or UV press (46%) compared to candling, the routine method (23%). Farmed fish were found to be the least infected (2%) but were still not Anisakidae free. The widespread presence of Anisakidae and the associated food safety implications indicate the need to further investigate the presence of Anisakidae in fish in the Belgian market.
Keywords
Food Science, Microbiology, General Medicine, Anisakis spp., Pseudoterranova spp., Fish, Food chain, Prevalence, Intensity, SMELT OSMERUS-EPERLANUS, COD GADUS-MORHUA, PSEUDOTERRANOVA-DECIPIENS NEMATODA, ANCHOVIES ENGRAULIS-ENCRASICOLUS, FARMED ATLANTIC SALMON, HYSTEROTHYLACIUM-ADUNCUM, ZOONOTIC NEMATODES, RAINBOW-TROUT, MOLECULAR-IDENTIFICATION, MICROMESISTIUS-POUTASSOU

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MLA
Mercken, Evelien, et al. “Presence of Anisakidae in Commercial Fish Species Imported into the Belgian Food Markets : A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD MICROBIOLOGY, vol. 318, 2020.
APA
Mercken, E., Van Damme, I., Serradell, A., & Gabriël, S. (2020). Presence of anisakidae in commercial fish species imported into the Belgian food markets : a systematic review and meta-analyses. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD MICROBIOLOGY, 318.
Chicago author-date
Mercken, Evelien, Inge Van Damme, Anna Serradell, and Sarah Gabriël. 2020. “Presence of Anisakidae in Commercial Fish Species Imported into the Belgian Food Markets : A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD MICROBIOLOGY 318.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Mercken, Evelien, Inge Van Damme, Anna Serradell, and Sarah Gabriël. 2020. “Presence of Anisakidae in Commercial Fish Species Imported into the Belgian Food Markets : A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD MICROBIOLOGY 318.
Vancouver
1.
Mercken E, Van Damme I, Serradell A, Gabriël S. Presence of anisakidae in commercial fish species imported into the Belgian food markets : a systematic review and meta-analyses. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD MICROBIOLOGY. 2020;318.
IEEE
[1]
E. Mercken, I. Van Damme, A. Serradell, and S. Gabriël, “Presence of anisakidae in commercial fish species imported into the Belgian food markets : a systematic review and meta-analyses,” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD MICROBIOLOGY, vol. 318, 2020.
@article{8662643,
  abstract     = {Anisakidae are marine zoonotic nematodes with most commercial fish species as intermediate hosts. Both public health risks and socio-economic problems are attributed to these larvae. Despite these concerns, the occurrence of Anisakidae in commercial fish species in Belgium remains unknown. Therefore, the main objective of this systematic review was to look into studies assessing the prevalence and intensity (level of infection) of Anisakidae in countries importing fish to the Belgian market. The databases of PubMed, Web of Science, Cordis, Google Scholar, Google, African Journals online and Asia Journals online were searched. Main eligibility criteria were: fish species consumed in Belgium; studies conducted in one of the main importing countries; and the availability of prevalence data. From the original 519 identified studies, 83 were included with data from Spain, Germany, Chile, Denmark, Turkey, France, China, England, Belgium, Norway, Iceland, Senegal and Sweden. Overall results show a widespread occurrence of Anisakidae with a high variability in prevalence between fish species and fishing sea. Cod (Gadus morhua) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo solar), the most consumed fish species in Belgium, have a mean prevalence of 33% and 5% respectively. Of all investigated fishing zones, fish caught in the Northeast Atlantic has the highest rate of infection (68%). Furthermore, higher prevalences were found when looking at the viscera (mean prevalence 59%) compared to the muscle (29%) and with superior techniques such as enzymatic digestion or UV press (46%) compared to candling, the routine method (23%). Farmed fish were found to be the least infected (2%) but were still not Anisakidae free. The widespread presence of Anisakidae and the associated food safety implications indicate the need to further investigate the presence of Anisakidae in fish in the Belgian market.},
  articleno    = {108456},
  author       = {Mercken, Evelien and Van Damme, Inge and Serradell, Anna and Gabriël, Sarah},
  issn         = {0168-1605},
  journal      = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD MICROBIOLOGY},
  keywords     = {Food Science,Microbiology,General Medicine,Anisakis spp.,Pseudoterranova spp.,Fish,Food chain,Prevalence,Intensity,SMELT OSMERUS-EPERLANUS,COD GADUS-MORHUA,PSEUDOTERRANOVA-DECIPIENS NEMATODA,ANCHOVIES ENGRAULIS-ENCRASICOLUS,FARMED ATLANTIC SALMON,HYSTEROTHYLACIUM-ADUNCUM,ZOONOTIC NEMATODES,RAINBOW-TROUT,MOLECULAR-IDENTIFICATION,MICROMESISTIUS-POUTASSOU},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {11},
  title        = {Presence of anisakidae in commercial fish species imported into the Belgian food markets : a systematic review and meta-analyses},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2019.108456},
  volume       = {318},
  year         = {2020},
}

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