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A seed-specific regulator of triterpene saponin biosynthesis in Medicago truncatula

(2020) PLANT CELL. 32(6). p.2020-2042
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Abstract
Plants produce a vast array of defense compounds to protect themselves from pathogen attack or herbivore predation. Saponins are a specific class of defense compounds comprising bioactive glycosides with a steroidal or triterpenoid aglycone backbone. The model legume Medicago truncatula synthesizes two types of saponins, hemolytic saponins and nonhemolytic soyasaponins, which accumulate as specific blends in different plant organs. Here, we report the identification of the seed-specific transcription factor TRITERPENE SAPONIN ACTIVATION REGULATOR3 (TSAR3), which controls hemolytic saponin biosynthesis in developing M. truncatula seeds. Analysis of genes that are coexpressed with TSAR3 in transcriptome data sets from developing M. truncatula seeds led to the identification of CYP88A13, a cytochrome P450 that catalyzes the C-16α hydroxylation of medicagenic acid toward zanhic acid, the final oxidation step of the hemolytic saponin biosynthesis branch in M. truncatula. In addition, two uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferases, UGT73F18 and UGT73F19, which glucosylate hemolytic sapogenins at the C-3 position, were identified. The genes encoding the identified biosynthetic enzymes are present in clusters of duplicated genes in the M. truncatula genome. This appears to be a common theme among saponin biosynthesis genes, especially glycosyltransferases, and may be the driving force of the metabolic evolution of saponins.
Keywords
Plant Science, Cell Biology, BHLH TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS, BETA-AMYRIN SYNTHASE, FUNCTIONAL-CHARACTERIZATION, COMBINATORIAL BIOSYNTHESIS, UDP-GLYCOSYLTRANSFERASES, SIGNAL-TRANSDUCTION, UGT73C SUBFAMILY, GENOME, JASMONATE, GENES

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Citation

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MLA
Ribeiro, Bianca, et al. “A Seed-Specific Regulator of Triterpene Saponin Biosynthesis in Medicago Truncatula.” PLANT CELL, vol. 32, no. 6, 2020, pp. 2020–42, doi:10.1105/tpc.19.00609.
APA
Ribeiro, B., Lacchini, E., Bicalho, K., Mertens, J., Arendt, P., Vanden Bossche, R., … Pollier, J. (2020). A seed-specific regulator of triterpene saponin biosynthesis in Medicago truncatula. PLANT CELL, 32(6), 2020–2042. https://doi.org/10.1105/tpc.19.00609
Chicago author-date
Ribeiro, Bianca, Elia Lacchini, Keylla Bicalho, Jan Mertens, Philipp Arendt, Robin Vanden Bossche, Gabriela Calegario, et al. 2020. “A Seed-Specific Regulator of Triterpene Saponin Biosynthesis in Medicago Truncatula.” PLANT CELL 32 (6): 2020–42. https://doi.org/10.1105/tpc.19.00609.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Ribeiro, Bianca, Elia Lacchini, Keylla Bicalho, Jan Mertens, Philipp Arendt, Robin Vanden Bossche, Gabriela Calegario, Lore Gryffroy, Evi Ceulemans, Julia Buitink, Alain Goossens, and Jacob Pollier. 2020. “A Seed-Specific Regulator of Triterpene Saponin Biosynthesis in Medicago Truncatula.” PLANT CELL 32 (6): 2020–2042. doi:10.1105/tpc.19.00609.
Vancouver
1.
Ribeiro B, Lacchini E, Bicalho K, Mertens J, Arendt P, Vanden Bossche R, et al. A seed-specific regulator of triterpene saponin biosynthesis in Medicago truncatula. PLANT CELL. 2020;32(6):2020–42.
IEEE
[1]
B. Ribeiro et al., “A seed-specific regulator of triterpene saponin biosynthesis in Medicago truncatula,” PLANT CELL, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 2020–2042, 2020.
@article{8662548,
  abstract     = {{Plants produce a vast array of defense compounds to protect themselves from pathogen attack or herbivore predation. Saponins are a specific class of defense compounds comprising bioactive glycosides with a steroidal or triterpenoid aglycone backbone. The model legume Medicago truncatula synthesizes two types of saponins, hemolytic saponins and nonhemolytic soyasaponins, which accumulate as specific blends in different plant organs. Here, we report the identification of the seed-specific transcription factor TRITERPENE SAPONIN ACTIVATION REGULATOR3 (TSAR3), which controls hemolytic saponin biosynthesis in developing M. truncatula seeds. Analysis of genes that are coexpressed with TSAR3 in transcriptome data sets from developing M. truncatula seeds led to the identification of CYP88A13, a cytochrome P450 that catalyzes the C-16α hydroxylation of medicagenic acid toward zanhic acid, the final oxidation step of the hemolytic saponin biosynthesis branch in M. truncatula. In addition, two uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferases, UGT73F18 and UGT73F19, which glucosylate hemolytic sapogenins at the C-3 position, were identified. The genes encoding the identified biosynthetic enzymes are present in clusters of duplicated genes in the M. truncatula genome. This appears to be a common theme among saponin biosynthesis genes, especially glycosyltransferases, and may be the driving force of the metabolic evolution of saponins.}},
  author       = {{Ribeiro, Bianca and Lacchini, Elia and Bicalho, Keylla and Mertens, Jan and Arendt, Philipp and Vanden Bossche, Robin and Calegario, Gabriela and Gryffroy, Lore and Ceulemans, Evi and Buitink, Julia and Goossens, Alain and Pollier, Jacob}},
  issn         = {{1040-4651}},
  journal      = {{PLANT CELL}},
  keywords     = {{Plant Science,Cell Biology,BHLH TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS,BETA-AMYRIN SYNTHASE,FUNCTIONAL-CHARACTERIZATION,COMBINATORIAL BIOSYNTHESIS,UDP-GLYCOSYLTRANSFERASES,SIGNAL-TRANSDUCTION,UGT73C SUBFAMILY,GENOME,JASMONATE,GENES}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{6}},
  pages        = {{2020--2042}},
  title        = {{A seed-specific regulator of triterpene saponin biosynthesis in Medicago truncatula}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1105/tpc.19.00609}},
  volume       = {{32}},
  year         = {{2020}},
}

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