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A Seed-Specific Regulator of Triterpene Saponin Biosynthesis in Medicago truncatula

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Abstract
Plants produce a vast array of defense compounds to protect themselves from pathogen attack or herbivore predation. A specific class of defense compounds are the saponins, bioactive glycosides with a steroidal or triterpenoid aglycone backbone. The model legume Medicago truncatula synthesizes two types of saponins, hemolytic saponins and non-hemolytic soyasaponins, which accumulate as specific blends in the different organs of the plant. Here we report the identification of a seed-specific transcription factor, TRITERPENE SAPONIN ACTIVATION REGULATOR 3 (TSAR3), which controls the hemolytic saponin biosynthesis in developing M. truncatula seeds. Co-expression analyses with TSAR3 in transcriptome datasets from developing M. truncatula seeds led to the identification of CYP88A13, a cytochrome P450 that catalyzes the C-16α hydroxylation of medicagenic acid towards zanhic acid, the final, yet unknown, oxidation step of the hemolytic saponin biosynthesis branch in M. truncatula. In addition, two uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferases, UGT73F18 and UGT73F19, which glucosylate hemolytic sapogenins at the C-3 position, were identified. The identified biosynthesis enzymes are organized in clusters of duplicated genes on the M. truncatula genome. This appears to be a quite common theme among saponin biosynthesis genes, especially glycosyltransferases, and may be the driving force of saponin metabolic evolution.
Keywords
Plant Science, Cell Biology

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MLA
Ribeiro, Bianca, et al. “A Seed-Specific Regulator of Triterpene Saponin Biosynthesis in Medicago Truncatula.” The Plant Cell, 2020.
APA
Ribeiro, B., Lacchini, E., Bicalho, K., Mertens, J., Arendt, P., Vanden Bossche, R., … Pollier, J. (2020). A Seed-Specific Regulator of Triterpene Saponin Biosynthesis in Medicago truncatula. The Plant Cell.
Chicago author-date
Ribeiro, Bianca, Elia Lacchini, Keylla Bicalho, Jan Mertens, Philipp Arendt, Robin Vanden Bossche, Gabriela Calegario, et al. 2020. “A Seed-Specific Regulator of Triterpene Saponin Biosynthesis in Medicago Truncatula.” The Plant Cell.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Ribeiro, Bianca, Elia Lacchini, Keylla Bicalho, Jan Mertens, Philipp Arendt, Robin Vanden Bossche, Gabriela Calegario, Lore Gryffroy, Evi Ceulemans, Julia Buitink, Alain Goossens, and Jacob Pollier. 2020. “A Seed-Specific Regulator of Triterpene Saponin Biosynthesis in Medicago Truncatula.” The Plant Cell.
Vancouver
1.
Ribeiro B, Lacchini E, Bicalho K, Mertens J, Arendt P, Vanden Bossche R, et al. A Seed-Specific Regulator of Triterpene Saponin Biosynthesis in Medicago truncatula. The Plant Cell. 2020;
IEEE
[1]
B. Ribeiro et al., “A Seed-Specific Regulator of Triterpene Saponin Biosynthesis in Medicago truncatula,” The Plant Cell, 2020.
@article{8662548,
  abstract     = {Plants produce a vast array of defense compounds to protect themselves from pathogen attack or herbivore predation. A specific class of defense compounds are the saponins, bioactive glycosides with a steroidal or triterpenoid aglycone backbone. The model legume Medicago truncatula synthesizes two types of saponins, hemolytic saponins and non-hemolytic soyasaponins, which accumulate as specific blends in the different organs of the plant. Here we report the identification of a seed-specific transcription factor, TRITERPENE SAPONIN ACTIVATION REGULATOR 3 (TSAR3), which controls the hemolytic saponin biosynthesis in developing M. truncatula seeds. Co-expression analyses with TSAR3 in transcriptome datasets from developing M. truncatula seeds led to the identification of CYP88A13, a cytochrome P450 that catalyzes the C-16α hydroxylation of medicagenic acid towards zanhic acid, the final, yet unknown, oxidation step of the hemolytic saponin biosynthesis branch in M. truncatula. In addition, two uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferases, UGT73F18 and UGT73F19, which glucosylate hemolytic sapogenins at the C-3 position, were identified. The identified biosynthesis enzymes are organized in clusters of duplicated genes on the M. truncatula genome. This appears to be a quite common theme among saponin biosynthesis genes, especially glycosyltransferases, and may be the driving force of saponin metabolic evolution.},
  author       = {Ribeiro, Bianca and Lacchini, Elia and Bicalho, Keylla and Mertens, Jan and Arendt, Philipp and Vanden Bossche, Robin and Calegario, Gabriela and Gryffroy, Lore and Ceulemans, Evi and Buitink, Julia and Goossens, Alain and Pollier, Jacob},
  issn         = {1040-4651},
  journal      = {The Plant Cell},
  keywords     = {Plant Science,Cell Biology},
  language     = {eng},
  title        = {A Seed-Specific Regulator of Triterpene Saponin Biosynthesis in Medicago truncatula},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1105/tpc.19.00609},
  year         = {2020},
}

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