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Antidepressants stimulate population growth in the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes

Josef Koch (UGent) and Karel De Schamphelaere (UGent)
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Abstract
Like many pharmaceuticals, antidepressants are designed in such a way that they do not degrade easily. Due to their limited breakdown capabilities, they often enter sewage systems in their active form and may even end up in the environment. Significant concentrations of the commonly prescribed antidepressant citalopram have been measured in freshwater systems in the past. Moreover, recent experiments in our laboratory revealed effects on the life history of the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes caused by exposure to citalopram at concentrations of 100 ng/L and upward. It is, however, unclear how these effects on individuals propagate to the population level. In this study, freshly initialized populations of N. spinipes were exposed to citalopram hydrobromide at concentrations of 0 (control), 100, 1000 μg/L (18 populations per treatment). After 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, and 8 weeks, 3 replicate populations per treatment were permanently removed from the setup and preserved in 70% ethanol. All samples were first counted manually under a light microscope (excluding the larval stages which were too small) and subsequently photo-documented using a FlowCam. Manual counts showed no effects on the population abundance at 100 μg/L. At 1000 μg/L, population abundances were slightly reduced, at first, but strongly exceeded the control at weeks 7 and 8. This supposed stimulation effect may be attributed to an increased reproduction rate which had been observed earlier in individual females exposed to citalopram. At the time of abstract submission, the FlowCam pictures are still being processed. They are, however, expected to allow for a more thorough evaluation of the population dynamics, including high-resolution size-distributions of each sample, over time. The results of this study indicate no immediate threat of citalopram to N. spinipes at concentrations found in the environment (< 1 μg/L). However, they provide valuable insights into the form and timing of stressor-induced population-level effects on N. spinipes.

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MLA
Koch, Josef, and Karel De Schamphelaere. Antidepressants Stimulate Population Growth in the Harpacticoid Copepod Nitocra Spinipes. 2020.
APA
Koch, J., & De Schamphelaere, K. (2020). Antidepressants stimulate population growth in the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes. Presented at the SETAC SciCon - SETAC Europe 30th Annual meeting (SETAC Europe 2020), Online.
Chicago author-date
Koch, Josef, and Karel De Schamphelaere. 2020. “Antidepressants Stimulate Population Growth in the Harpacticoid Copepod Nitocra Spinipes.” In .
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Koch, Josef, and Karel De Schamphelaere. 2020. “Antidepressants Stimulate Population Growth in the Harpacticoid Copepod Nitocra Spinipes.” In .
Vancouver
1.
Koch J, De Schamphelaere K. Antidepressants stimulate population growth in the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes. In 2020.
IEEE
[1]
J. Koch and K. De Schamphelaere, “Antidepressants stimulate population growth in the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes,” presented at the SETAC SciCon - SETAC Europe 30th Annual meeting (SETAC Europe 2020), Online, 2020.
@inproceedings{8662446,
  abstract     = {Like many pharmaceuticals, antidepressants are designed in such a way that they do not degrade easily. Due to their limited breakdown capabilities, they often enter sewage systems in their active form and may even end up in the environment. Significant concentrations of the commonly prescribed antidepressant citalopram have been measured in freshwater systems in the past. Moreover, recent experiments in our laboratory revealed effects on the life history of the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes caused by exposure to citalopram at concentrations of 100 ng/L and upward. It is, however, unclear how these effects on individuals propagate to the population level.
In this study, freshly initialized populations of N. spinipes were exposed to citalopram hydrobromide at concentrations of 0 (control), 100, 1000 μg/L (18 populations per treatment). After 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, and 8 weeks, 3 replicate populations per treatment were permanently removed from the setup and preserved in 70% ethanol. All samples were first counted manually under a light microscope (excluding the larval stages which were too small) and subsequently photo-documented using a FlowCam. Manual counts showed no effects on the population abundance at 100 μg/L. At 1000 μg/L, population abundances were slightly reduced, at first, but strongly exceeded the control at weeks 7 and 8. This supposed stimulation effect may be attributed to an increased reproduction rate which had been observed earlier in individual females exposed to citalopram. At the time of abstract submission, the FlowCam pictures are still being processed. They are, however, expected to allow for a more thorough evaluation of the population dynamics, including high-resolution size-distributions of each sample, over time. The results of this study indicate no immediate threat of citalopram to N. spinipes at concentrations found in the environment (< 1 μg/L). However, they provide valuable insights into the form and timing of stressor-induced population-level effects on N. spinipes.},
  author       = {Koch, Josef and De Schamphelaere, Karel},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {Online},
  title        = {Antidepressants stimulate population growth in the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes},
  year         = {2020},
}