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Doping homogeneity in co-doped materials investigated at different length scales

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Abstract
Doping homogeneity is important for the properties of co-doped phosphors, as it can affect the energy transfer between sensitizer and activator ions. In a case study we apply different methods, that is scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) mapping, SEM combined with cathodoluminescence (CL) and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), to study the doping homogeneity of the host system monazite LaPO4 doped with two different lanthanide ions on different length scales. A new criterion for doping heterogeneity in co-doped systems is developed, which is based on the NMR visibility function, which for this purpose is extended to doping with two or more paramagnetic dopants. A deviation from this function is indicative of doping heterogeneity on the length-scale of the blind-spheres of the paramagnetic dopants. A discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the different methods is presented. The combined approach allows to study doping homogeneity from the nm to the mm scale.
Keywords
PERSISTENT LUMINESCENCE, ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY, RED PHOSPHOR, MAS NMR, RELAXATION, SPECTROSCOPY, CHEMISTRY, ALUMINUM, SPACE, IONS

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MLA
Li, Wenyu, et al. “Doping Homogeneity in Co-Doped Materials Investigated at Different Length Scales.” PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHEMICAL PHYSICS, vol. 22, no. 2, 2020, pp. 818–25.
APA
Li, W., Smet, P., Martin, L., Pritzel, C., & Schmedt auf der Günne, J. (2020). Doping homogeneity in co-doped materials investigated at different length scales. PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHEMICAL PHYSICS, 22(2), 818–825.
Chicago author-date
Li, Wenyu, Philippe Smet, Lisa Martin, Christian Pritzel, and Jörn Schmedt auf der Günne. 2020. “Doping Homogeneity in Co-Doped Materials Investigated at Different Length Scales.” PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHEMICAL PHYSICS 22 (2): 818–25.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Li, Wenyu, Philippe Smet, Lisa Martin, Christian Pritzel, and Jörn Schmedt auf der Günne. 2020. “Doping Homogeneity in Co-Doped Materials Investigated at Different Length Scales.” PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHEMICAL PHYSICS 22 (2): 818–825.
Vancouver
1.
Li W, Smet P, Martin L, Pritzel C, Schmedt auf der Günne J. Doping homogeneity in co-doped materials investigated at different length scales. PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHEMICAL PHYSICS. 2020;22(2):818–25.
IEEE
[1]
W. Li, P. Smet, L. Martin, C. Pritzel, and J. Schmedt auf der Günne, “Doping homogeneity in co-doped materials investigated at different length scales,” PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHEMICAL PHYSICS, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 818–825, 2020.
@article{8662415,
  abstract     = {Doping homogeneity is important for the properties of co-doped phosphors, as it can affect the energy transfer between sensitizer and activator ions. In a case study we apply different methods, that is
scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX)
mapping, SEM combined with cathodoluminescence (CL) and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance
(NMR), to study the doping homogeneity of the host system monazite LaPO4 doped with two different
lanthanide ions on different length scales. A new criterion for doping heterogeneity in co-doped
systems is developed, which is based on the NMR visibility function, which for this purpose is extended
to doping with two or more paramagnetic dopants. A deviation from this function is indicative of doping
heterogeneity on the length-scale of the blind-spheres of the paramagnetic dopants. A discussion of the
advantages and disadvantages of the different methods is presented. The combined approach allows to
study doping homogeneity from the nm to the mm scale.},
  author       = {Li, Wenyu and Smet, Philippe and Martin, Lisa and Pritzel, Christian and Schmedt auf der Günne, Jörn},
  issn         = {1463-9076},
  journal      = {PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHEMICAL PHYSICS},
  keywords     = {PERSISTENT LUMINESCENCE,ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY,RED PHOSPHOR,MAS NMR,RELAXATION,SPECTROSCOPY,CHEMISTRY,ALUMINUM,SPACE,IONS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {818--825},
  title        = {Doping homogeneity in co-doped materials investigated at different length scales},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9cp05599a},
  volume       = {22},
  year         = {2020},
}

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