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Hide your pain : social threat increases pain reports and aggression, but reduces facial pain expression and empathy

(2020) JOURNAL OF PAIN. 21(3-4). p.334-346
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Abstract
Earlier research studying the effects of social threat on the experience and expression of pain led to mixed results. In this study, female participants (N = 32) came to the lab with 2 confederates. Both confederates administered a total of 10 painful electrocutaneous stimuli to the participant. The framing of the administration was manipulated in a within-subjects design: In the low social threat condition the participant was told that the confederate could choose between 10 and 20 pain stimuli, thus they believed that this confederate chose to administer the minimum allowed number of pain stimuli. In the high social threat condition the confederate had a choice between 1 and 10 stimuli, thus they believed that this confederate chose to administer the maximum allowed number of stimuli. Participants reported on the intensity, unpleasantness, and threat value of the painful stimuli, and their facial expression was recorded. Moreover, aggression and empathy toward the confederates were assessed. As hypothesized, participants reported increased pain intensity, unpleasantness, and threat in the high social threat condition compared to the low social threat condition, but showed less facial pain expression. Finally, participants exhibited increased aggression and reduced empathy toward the confederate in the high social threat condition. Perspective: Social threat reduces painful facial expression, but simultaneously increases pain reports, leading to a double burden of the person in pain. Additionally, social threat affected social relationships by increasing aggression and reducing empathy for the other.
Keywords
Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Neurology, Clinical Neurology, Social threat, pain expression, self-report, aggression, communication, retribution, empathy, PERCEIVED INJUSTICE, COMMUNICATION, EXCLUSION, HEALTH, OTHERS, ANGER, SEX, INVALIDATION, INDIVIDUALS, EXPERIENCE

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MLA
Karos, Kai, et al. “Hide Your Pain : Social Threat Increases Pain Reports and Aggression, but Reduces Facial Pain Expression and Empathy.” JOURNAL OF PAIN, vol. 21, no. 3–4, 2020, pp. 334–46, doi:10.1016/j.jpain.2019.06.014.
APA
Karos, K., Meulders, A., Goubert, L., & Vlaeyen, J. W. S. (2020). Hide your pain : social threat increases pain reports and aggression, but reduces facial pain expression and empathy. JOURNAL OF PAIN, 21(3–4), 334–346. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2019.06.014
Chicago author-date
Karos, Kai, Ann Meulders, Liesbet Goubert, and Johan W. S. Vlaeyen. 2020. “Hide Your Pain : Social Threat Increases Pain Reports and Aggression, but Reduces Facial Pain Expression and Empathy.” JOURNAL OF PAIN 21 (3–4): 334–46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2019.06.014.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Karos, Kai, Ann Meulders, Liesbet Goubert, and Johan W. S. Vlaeyen. 2020. “Hide Your Pain : Social Threat Increases Pain Reports and Aggression, but Reduces Facial Pain Expression and Empathy.” JOURNAL OF PAIN 21 (3–4): 334–346. doi:10.1016/j.jpain.2019.06.014.
Vancouver
1.
Karos K, Meulders A, Goubert L, Vlaeyen JWS. Hide your pain : social threat increases pain reports and aggression, but reduces facial pain expression and empathy. JOURNAL OF PAIN. 2020;21(3–4):334–46.
IEEE
[1]
K. Karos, A. Meulders, L. Goubert, and J. W. S. Vlaeyen, “Hide your pain : social threat increases pain reports and aggression, but reduces facial pain expression and empathy,” JOURNAL OF PAIN, vol. 21, no. 3–4, pp. 334–346, 2020.
@article{8662058,
  abstract     = {Earlier research studying the effects of social threat on the experience and expression of pain led to mixed results. In this study, female participants (N = 32) came to the lab with 2 confederates. Both confederates administered a total of 10 painful electrocutaneous stimuli to the participant. The framing of the administration was manipulated in a within-subjects design: In the low social threat condition the participant was told that the confederate could choose between 10 and 20 pain stimuli, thus they believed that this confederate chose to administer the minimum allowed number of pain stimuli. In the high social threat condition the confederate had a choice between 1 and 10 stimuli, thus they believed that this confederate chose to administer the maximum allowed number of stimuli. Participants reported on the intensity, unpleasantness, and threat value of the painful stimuli, and their facial expression was recorded. Moreover, aggression and empathy toward the confederates were assessed. As hypothesized, participants reported increased pain intensity, unpleasantness, and threat in the high social threat condition compared to the low social threat condition, but showed less facial pain expression. Finally, participants exhibited increased aggression and reduced empathy toward the confederate in the high social threat condition.

Perspective: Social threat reduces painful facial expression, but simultaneously increases pain reports, leading to a double burden of the person in pain. Additionally, social threat affected social relationships by increasing aggression and reducing empathy for the other.},
  author       = {Karos, Kai and Meulders, Ann and Goubert, Liesbet and Vlaeyen, Johan W. S.},
  issn         = {1526-5900},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF PAIN},
  keywords     = {Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine,Neurology,Clinical Neurology,Social threat,pain expression,self-report,aggression,communication,retribution,empathy,PERCEIVED INJUSTICE,COMMUNICATION,EXCLUSION,HEALTH,OTHERS,ANGER,SEX,INVALIDATION,INDIVIDUALS,EXPERIENCE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3-4},
  pages        = {334--346},
  title        = {Hide your pain : social threat increases pain reports and aggression, but reduces facial pain expression and empathy},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2019.06.014},
  volume       = {21},
  year         = {2020},
}

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