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Microbial protein out of thin air : fixation of nitrogen gas by an autotrophic hydrogen-oxidizing bacterial enrichment

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Abstract
For the production of edible microbial protein (MP), ammonia generated by the Haber-Bosch process or reclaimed ammonia from waste streams is typically considered as the nitrogen source. These processes for ammonia production are highly energy intensive. In this study, the potential for using nitrogen gas (N-2) as a direct nitrogen source for MP production by hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria (HOB) was evaluated. The use of N-2 versus ammonium as nitrogen source during the enrichment process resulted in differentiation of the bacterial community composition of the enrichments. A few previously unknown potential N-2-fixing HOB taxa (i.e., representatives of the genus Azonexus and the family Comamonadaceae) dominated the enrichments. The biomass yield of a N-2-fixing HOB enrichment was 30-50% lower than that of the ammonium-based HOB enrichment from the same inoculum source. The dried biomass of N-2-fixing HOB had a high protein content (62.0 +/- 6.3%) and an essential amino acid profile comparable to MP from ammonium-based HOB. MP from N-2-fixing HOB could potentially be produced in situ without entailing the emissions caused by ammonia production and transportation by conventional means. It could be a promising substitute for N-2-fixing protein-rich soybean because it has 70% higher protein content and double energy conversion efficiency from solar energy to biomass.
Keywords
PSEUDOMONAS-PSEUDOFLAVA, ALCALIGENES-EUTROPHUS, FERTILIZER, AMMONIA, GROWTH, CHALLENGES, EFFICIENCY, SOYBEANS, RECOVERY, SEQUENCE

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MLA
Hu, Xiaona, et al. “Microbial Protein out of Thin Air : Fixation of Nitrogen Gas by an Autotrophic Hydrogen-Oxidizing Bacterial Enrichment.” ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, vol. 54, no. 6, 2020, pp. 3609–17, doi:10.1021/acs.est.9b06755.
APA
Hu, X., Kerckhof, F.-M., Ghesquiere, J., Bernaerts, K., Boeckx, P., Clauwaert, P., & Boon, N. (2020). Microbial protein out of thin air : fixation of nitrogen gas by an autotrophic hydrogen-oxidizing bacterial enrichment. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, 54(6), 3609–3617. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b06755
Chicago author-date
Hu, Xiaona, Frederiek-Maarten Kerckhof, Justien Ghesquiere, Kristel Bernaerts, Pascal Boeckx, Peter Clauwaert, and Nico Boon. 2020. “Microbial Protein out of Thin Air : Fixation of Nitrogen Gas by an Autotrophic Hydrogen-Oxidizing Bacterial Enrichment.” ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 54 (6): 3609–17. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b06755.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Hu, Xiaona, Frederiek-Maarten Kerckhof, Justien Ghesquiere, Kristel Bernaerts, Pascal Boeckx, Peter Clauwaert, and Nico Boon. 2020. “Microbial Protein out of Thin Air : Fixation of Nitrogen Gas by an Autotrophic Hydrogen-Oxidizing Bacterial Enrichment.” ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 54 (6): 3609–3617. doi:10.1021/acs.est.9b06755.
Vancouver
1.
Hu X, Kerckhof F-M, Ghesquiere J, Bernaerts K, Boeckx P, Clauwaert P, et al. Microbial protein out of thin air : fixation of nitrogen gas by an autotrophic hydrogen-oxidizing bacterial enrichment. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY. 2020;54(6):3609–17.
IEEE
[1]
X. Hu et al., “Microbial protein out of thin air : fixation of nitrogen gas by an autotrophic hydrogen-oxidizing bacterial enrichment,” ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 3609–3617, 2020.
@article{8661353,
  abstract     = {{For the production of edible microbial protein (MP), ammonia generated by the Haber-Bosch process or reclaimed ammonia from waste streams is typically considered as the nitrogen source. These processes for ammonia production are highly energy intensive. In this study, the potential for using nitrogen gas (N-2) as a direct nitrogen source for MP production by hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria (HOB) was evaluated. The use of N-2 versus ammonium as nitrogen source during the enrichment process resulted in differentiation of the bacterial community composition of the enrichments. A few previously unknown potential N-2-fixing HOB taxa (i.e., representatives of the genus Azonexus and the family Comamonadaceae) dominated the enrichments. The biomass yield of a N-2-fixing HOB enrichment was 30-50% lower than that of the ammonium-based HOB enrichment from the same inoculum source. The dried biomass of N-2-fixing HOB had a high protein content (62.0 +/- 6.3%) and an essential amino acid profile comparable to MP from ammonium-based HOB. MP from N-2-fixing HOB could potentially be produced in situ without entailing the emissions caused by ammonia production and transportation by conventional means. It could be a promising substitute for N-2-fixing protein-rich soybean because it has 70% higher protein content and double energy conversion efficiency from solar energy to biomass.}},
  author       = {{Hu, Xiaona and Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten and Ghesquiere, Justien and Bernaerts, Kristel and Boeckx, Pascal and Clauwaert, Peter and Boon, Nico}},
  issn         = {{0013-936X}},
  journal      = {{ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY}},
  keywords     = {{PSEUDOMONAS-PSEUDOFLAVA,ALCALIGENES-EUTROPHUS,FERTILIZER,AMMONIA,GROWTH,CHALLENGES,EFFICIENCY,SOYBEANS,RECOVERY,SEQUENCE}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{6}},
  pages        = {{3609--3617}},
  title        = {{Microbial protein out of thin air : fixation of nitrogen gas by an autotrophic hydrogen-oxidizing bacterial enrichment}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b06755}},
  volume       = {{54}},
  year         = {{2020}},
}

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