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Substrate-dependent fermentation of bamboo in giant panda gut microbiomes : leaf primarily to ethanol and pith to lactate

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Abstract
The giant panda is known worldwide for having successfully moved to a diet almost exclusively based on bamboo. Provided that no lignocellulose-degrading enzyme was detected in panda's genome, bamboo digestion is believed to depend on its gut microbiome. However, pandas retain the digestive system of a carnivore, with retention times of maximum 12 h. Cultivation of their unique gut microbiome under controlled laboratory conditions may be a valid tool to understand giant pandas' dietary habits, and provide valuable insights about what component of lignocellulose may be metabolized. Here, we collected gut microbiomes from fresh fecal samples of a giant panda (either entirely green or yellow stools) and supplied them with green leaves or yellow pith (i.e., the peeled stem). Microbial community composition was substrate dependent, and resulted in markedly different fermentation profiles, with yellow pith fermented to lactate and green leaves to lactate, acetate and ethanol, the latter to strikingly high concentrations (similar to 3%, v:v, within 3.5 h). Microbial metaproteins pointed to hemicellulose rather than cellulose degradation. The alpha-amylase from the giant panda (E.C. 3.2.1.1) was the predominant identified metaprotein, particularly in reactors inoculated with pellets derived from fecal samples (up to 60%). Gut microbiomes assemblage was most prominently impacted by the change in substrate (either leaf or pith). Removal of soluble organics from inocula to force lignocellulose degradation significantly enriched Bacteroides (in green leaf) and Escherichia/Shigella (in yellow pith). Overall, different substrates (either leaf or pith) markedly shaped gut microbiome assemblies and fermentation profiles. The biochemical profile of fermentation products may be an underestimated factor contributing to explain the peculiar dietary behavior of giant pandas, and should be implemented in large scale studies together with short-term lab-scale cultivation of gut microbiomes.
Keywords
giant panda, cellulose, hemicellulose, alpha amylase, lignocellulose, fermentation, gut microbiome, ethanol, METAGENOMIC ANALYSIS, LIGNOCELLULOSE, IDENTIFICATION, DIGESTION, BACTERIA, DIGESTIBILITY, DEGRADATION, MECHANISMS, DIVERSITY, SEQUENCE

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MLA
Scoma, Alberto, et al. “Substrate-Dependent Fermentation of Bamboo in Giant Panda Gut Microbiomes : Leaf Primarily to Ethanol and Pith to Lactate.” FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY, vol. 11, 2020, doi:10.3389/fmicb.2020.00530.
APA
Scoma, A., Khor, W. C., Coma, M., Heyer, R., Props, R., Schoelynck, J., … Rabaey, K. (2020). Substrate-dependent fermentation of bamboo in giant panda gut microbiomes : leaf primarily to ethanol and pith to lactate. FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY, 11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.00530
Chicago author-date
Scoma, Alberto, Way Cern Khor, Marta Coma, Robert Heyer, Ruben Props, Jonas Schoelynck, Tim Bouts, et al. 2020. “Substrate-Dependent Fermentation of Bamboo in Giant Panda Gut Microbiomes : Leaf Primarily to Ethanol and Pith to Lactate.” FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY 11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.00530.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Scoma, Alberto, Way Cern Khor, Marta Coma, Robert Heyer, Ruben Props, Jonas Schoelynck, Tim Bouts, Dirk Benndorf, Desheng Li, Hemin Zhang, and Korneel Rabaey. 2020. “Substrate-Dependent Fermentation of Bamboo in Giant Panda Gut Microbiomes : Leaf Primarily to Ethanol and Pith to Lactate.” FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY 11. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2020.00530.
Vancouver
1.
Scoma A, Khor WC, Coma M, Heyer R, Props R, Schoelynck J, et al. Substrate-dependent fermentation of bamboo in giant panda gut microbiomes : leaf primarily to ethanol and pith to lactate. FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY. 2020;11.
IEEE
[1]
A. Scoma et al., “Substrate-dependent fermentation of bamboo in giant panda gut microbiomes : leaf primarily to ethanol and pith to lactate,” FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY, vol. 11, 2020.
@article{8661349,
  abstract     = {{The giant panda is known worldwide for having successfully moved to a diet almost exclusively based on bamboo. Provided that no lignocellulose-degrading enzyme was detected in panda's genome, bamboo digestion is believed to depend on its gut microbiome. However, pandas retain the digestive system of a carnivore, with retention times of maximum 12 h. Cultivation of their unique gut microbiome under controlled laboratory conditions may be a valid tool to understand giant pandas' dietary habits, and provide valuable insights about what component of lignocellulose may be metabolized. Here, we collected gut microbiomes from fresh fecal samples of a giant panda (either entirely green or yellow stools) and supplied them with green leaves or yellow pith (i.e., the peeled stem). Microbial community composition was substrate dependent, and resulted in markedly different fermentation profiles, with yellow pith fermented to lactate and green leaves to lactate, acetate and ethanol, the latter to strikingly high concentrations (similar to 3%, v:v, within 3.5 h). Microbial metaproteins pointed to hemicellulose rather than cellulose degradation. The alpha-amylase from the giant panda (E.C. 3.2.1.1) was the predominant identified metaprotein, particularly in reactors inoculated with pellets derived from fecal samples (up to 60%). Gut microbiomes assemblage was most prominently impacted by the change in substrate (either leaf or pith). Removal of soluble organics from inocula to force lignocellulose degradation significantly enriched Bacteroides (in green leaf) and Escherichia/Shigella (in yellow pith). Overall, different substrates (either leaf or pith) markedly shaped gut microbiome assemblies and fermentation profiles. The biochemical profile of fermentation products may be an underestimated factor contributing to explain the peculiar dietary behavior of giant pandas, and should be implemented in large scale studies together with short-term lab-scale cultivation of gut microbiomes.}},
  articleno    = {{530}},
  author       = {{Scoma, Alberto and Khor, Way Cern and Coma, Marta and Heyer, Robert and Props, Ruben and Schoelynck, Jonas and Bouts, Tim and Benndorf, Dirk and Li, Desheng and Zhang, Hemin and Rabaey, Korneel}},
  issn         = {{1664-302X}},
  journal      = {{FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY}},
  keywords     = {{giant panda,cellulose,hemicellulose,alpha amylase,lignocellulose,fermentation,gut microbiome,ethanol,METAGENOMIC ANALYSIS,LIGNOCELLULOSE,IDENTIFICATION,DIGESTION,BACTERIA,DIGESTIBILITY,DEGRADATION,MECHANISMS,DIVERSITY,SEQUENCE}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{12}},
  title        = {{Substrate-dependent fermentation of bamboo in giant panda gut microbiomes : leaf primarily to ethanol and pith to lactate}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.00530}},
  volume       = {{11}},
  year         = {{2020}},
}

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