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Evaluation of acute kidney injury in dogs with complicated or uncomplicated Babesia rossi infection

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Abstract
Dogs with babesiosis can present with multiple complications, including acute kidney injury (AKI). The objective of this study was to characterize AKI in dogs with babesiosis caused by Babesia rossi at presentation and after treatment. Thirty-five client-owned dogs with B. rossi infection and 10 control dogs were included in this prospective observational study. Blood and urine were collected in Babesia-infected dogs at presentation (T-0, n = 35), after 24 h (T-24h, n = 11), and after 1 month (T-1m, n = 9). The following urinary kidney injury biomarkers were assessed: urinary protein to creatinine ratio (UPC), urinary glomerular injury biomarkers (immunoglobulin G (uIgG) and C-reactive protein (uCRP)), and urinary tubular injury biomarkers (retinol-binding protein (uRBP) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL)). Serum functional renal biomarkers were creatinine (sCr) and symmetric dimethylarginine (sSDMA). Post-mortem kidney biopsies were analyzed by light and transmission electron microscopy. At T-0, all kidney injury biomarkers were significantly higher in Babesia-infected dogs compared to healthy controls (P < 0.001), while functional renal biomarkers were not significantly different (P > 0.05). At T-24h, all urinary tubular injury biomarkers and UPC decreased significantly (P < 0.01), while glomerular injury biomarkers did not (P = 0.084). At T-1m, all urinary kidney injury biomarkers decreased to values not significantly different from healthy controls (P > 0.5). Significant changes in functional renal biomarkers were not seen after treatment (P > 0.05). Dogs with complicated babesiosis had significantly higher glomerular injury biomarkers, UPC, and sSDMA compared to uncomplicated cases (P < 0.05), while all tubular injury biomarkers and sCr were not significantly different (P > 0.1). Dogs with babesiosis caused by B. rossi showed transient kidney injury, which was detected by all kidney injury biomarkers, but remained undetected by functional biomarkers. All infected dogs, irrespective of disease severity, suffered comparable kidney injury based on tubular injury biomarker concentrations, while loss of function was seen more often in dogs with complicated babesiosis based on sSDMA results.
Keywords
Insect Science, Microbiology, Parasitology, Infectious Diseases, AKI, Babesiosis, Canine, NGAL, Renal, SDMA, GELATINASE-ASSOCIATED LIPOCALIN, C-REACTIVE PROTEIN, CANINE BABESIOSIS, RENAL DYSFUNCTION, URINARY MARKERS, DOMESTIC DOGS, CREATININE, DISEASE, BIOMARKERS, PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

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MLA
Defauw, Pieter, et al. “Evaluation of Acute Kidney Injury in Dogs with Complicated or Uncomplicated Babesia Rossi Infection.” TICKS AND TICK-BORNE DISEASES, vol. 11, no. 3, 2020.
APA
Defauw, P., Schoeman, J. P., Leisewitz, A. L., Goddard, A., Duchateau, L., Aresu, L., … Daminet, S. (2020). Evaluation of acute kidney injury in dogs with complicated or uncomplicated Babesia rossi infection. TICKS AND TICK-BORNE DISEASES, 11(3).
Chicago author-date
Defauw, Pieter, J.P. Schoeman, A.L. Leisewitz, A. Goddard, Luc Duchateau, L. Aresu, Evelyne Meyer, and Sylvie Daminet. 2020. “Evaluation of Acute Kidney Injury in Dogs with Complicated or Uncomplicated Babesia Rossi Infection.” TICKS AND TICK-BORNE DISEASES 11 (3).
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Defauw, Pieter, J.P. Schoeman, A.L. Leisewitz, A. Goddard, Luc Duchateau, L. Aresu, Evelyne Meyer, and Sylvie Daminet. 2020. “Evaluation of Acute Kidney Injury in Dogs with Complicated or Uncomplicated Babesia Rossi Infection.” TICKS AND TICK-BORNE DISEASES 11 (3).
Vancouver
1.
Defauw P, Schoeman JP, Leisewitz AL, Goddard A, Duchateau L, Aresu L, et al. Evaluation of acute kidney injury in dogs with complicated or uncomplicated Babesia rossi infection. TICKS AND TICK-BORNE DISEASES. 2020;11(3).
IEEE
[1]
P. Defauw et al., “Evaluation of acute kidney injury in dogs with complicated or uncomplicated Babesia rossi infection,” TICKS AND TICK-BORNE DISEASES, vol. 11, no. 3, 2020.
@article{8661324,
  abstract     = {Dogs with babesiosis can present with multiple complications, including acute kidney injury (AKI). The objective of this study was to characterize AKI in dogs with babesiosis caused by Babesia rossi at presentation and after treatment. Thirty-five client-owned dogs with B. rossi infection and 10 control dogs were included in this prospective observational study. Blood and urine were collected in Babesia-infected dogs at presentation (T-0, n = 35), after 24 h (T-24h, n = 11), and after 1 month (T-1m, n = 9). The following urinary kidney injury biomarkers were assessed: urinary protein to creatinine ratio (UPC), urinary glomerular injury biomarkers (immunoglobulin G (uIgG) and C-reactive protein (uCRP)), and urinary tubular injury biomarkers (retinol-binding protein (uRBP) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL)). Serum functional renal biomarkers were creatinine (sCr) and symmetric dimethylarginine (sSDMA). Post-mortem kidney biopsies were analyzed by light and transmission electron microscopy.

At T-0, all kidney injury biomarkers were significantly higher in Babesia-infected dogs compared to healthy controls (P < 0.001), while functional renal biomarkers were not significantly different (P > 0.05). At T-24h, all urinary tubular injury biomarkers and UPC decreased significantly (P < 0.01), while glomerular injury biomarkers did not (P = 0.084). At T-1m, all urinary kidney injury biomarkers decreased to values not significantly different from healthy controls (P > 0.5). Significant changes in functional renal biomarkers were not seen after treatment (P > 0.05). Dogs with complicated babesiosis had significantly higher glomerular injury biomarkers, UPC, and sSDMA compared to uncomplicated cases (P < 0.05), while all tubular injury biomarkers and sCr were not significantly different (P > 0.1).

Dogs with babesiosis caused by B. rossi showed transient kidney injury, which was detected by all kidney injury biomarkers, but remained undetected by functional biomarkers. All infected dogs, irrespective of disease severity, suffered comparable kidney injury based on tubular injury biomarker concentrations, while loss of function was seen more often in dogs with complicated babesiosis based on sSDMA results.},
  articleno    = {101406},
  author       = {Defauw, Pieter and Schoeman, J.P. and Leisewitz, A.L. and Goddard, A. and Duchateau, Luc and Aresu, L. and Meyer, Evelyne and Daminet, Sylvie},
  issn         = {1877-959X},
  journal      = {TICKS AND TICK-BORNE DISEASES},
  keywords     = {Insect Science,Microbiology,Parasitology,Infectious Diseases,AKI,Babesiosis,Canine,NGAL,Renal,SDMA,GELATINASE-ASSOCIATED LIPOCALIN,C-REACTIVE PROTEIN,CANINE BABESIOSIS,RENAL DYSFUNCTION,URINARY MARKERS,DOMESTIC DOGS,CREATININE,DISEASE,BIOMARKERS,PATHOPHYSIOLOGY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {10},
  title        = {Evaluation of acute kidney injury in dogs with complicated or uncomplicated Babesia rossi infection},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2020.101406},
  volume       = {11},
  year         = {2020},
}

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