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The effect of tongue‐strengthening exercises on tongue strength and swallowing‐related parameters in chronic radiation‐associated dysphagia

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Abstract
Background Radiation-associated dysphagia (RAD) is highly prevalent in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients, with insufficient tongue strength (TS) as a characteristic of this disabling complication. The effects of tongue-strengthening exercises (TSE) on TS, swallowing, and quality of life (QoL) have not been studied in this population. Methods A prospective phase 2 study using an 8 weeks during TSE protocol was carried out in 15 patients with chronic RAD. Outcome parameters were maximal isometric pressure (MIP), TS during swallowing (Pswal), swallowing function, and QoL. All parameters were evaluated at baseline, after 4 and 8 weeks of training, and 4 weeks after the last training session. Results MIP increased significantly, without detraining effects. Pswal did not increase significantly, but relevant effect sizes were measured. Swallowing function ameliorated, but did not result in increased functional oral intake, self-reported outcome or QoL. Conclusion TSE in patients with RAD results in increased strength and swallowing function.
Keywords
Otorhinolaryngology, dysphagia, head and neck cancer, radiation-associated dysphagia, rehabilitation, tongue-strengthening exercises, QUALITY-OF-LIFE, NECK-CANCER, LINGUAL EXERCISE, STROKE PATIENTS, HEAD, RADIOTHERAPY, DISORDERS, EFFICACY, THERAPY, PERFORMANCE

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MLA
Van den Steen, Leen, et al. “The Effect of Tongue‐strengthening Exercises on Tongue Strength and Swallowing‐related Parameters in Chronic Radiation‐associated Dysphagia.” HEAD AND NECK - JOURNAL FOR THE SCIENCES AND SPECIALTIES OF THE HEAD AND NECK, vol. 42, no. 9, 2020, pp. 2298–307, doi:10.1002/hed.26179.
APA
Van den Steen, L., Baudelet, M., Tomassen, P., Bonte, K., De Bodt, M., & Van Nuffelen, G. (2020). The effect of tongue‐strengthening exercises on tongue strength and swallowing‐related parameters in chronic radiation‐associated dysphagia. HEAD AND NECK - JOURNAL FOR THE SCIENCES AND SPECIALTIES OF THE HEAD AND NECK, 42(9), 2298–2307. https://doi.org/10.1002/hed.26179
Chicago author-date
Van den Steen, Leen, Margot Baudelet, Peter Tomassen, Katrien Bonte, Marc De Bodt, and Gwen Van Nuffelen. 2020. “The Effect of Tongue‐strengthening Exercises on Tongue Strength and Swallowing‐related Parameters in Chronic Radiation‐associated Dysphagia.” HEAD AND NECK - JOURNAL FOR THE SCIENCES AND SPECIALTIES OF THE HEAD AND NECK 42 (9): 2298–2307. https://doi.org/10.1002/hed.26179.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Van den Steen, Leen, Margot Baudelet, Peter Tomassen, Katrien Bonte, Marc De Bodt, and Gwen Van Nuffelen. 2020. “The Effect of Tongue‐strengthening Exercises on Tongue Strength and Swallowing‐related Parameters in Chronic Radiation‐associated Dysphagia.” HEAD AND NECK - JOURNAL FOR THE SCIENCES AND SPECIALTIES OF THE HEAD AND NECK 42 (9): 2298–2307. doi:10.1002/hed.26179.
Vancouver
1.
Van den Steen L, Baudelet M, Tomassen P, Bonte K, De Bodt M, Van Nuffelen G. The effect of tongue‐strengthening exercises on tongue strength and swallowing‐related parameters in chronic radiation‐associated dysphagia. HEAD AND NECK - JOURNAL FOR THE SCIENCES AND SPECIALTIES OF THE HEAD AND NECK. 2020;42(9):2298–307.
IEEE
[1]
L. Van den Steen, M. Baudelet, P. Tomassen, K. Bonte, M. De Bodt, and G. Van Nuffelen, “The effect of tongue‐strengthening exercises on tongue strength and swallowing‐related parameters in chronic radiation‐associated dysphagia,” HEAD AND NECK - JOURNAL FOR THE SCIENCES AND SPECIALTIES OF THE HEAD AND NECK, vol. 42, no. 9, pp. 2298–2307, 2020.
@article{8661007,
  abstract     = {{Background Radiation-associated dysphagia (RAD) is highly prevalent in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients, with insufficient tongue strength (TS) as a characteristic of this disabling complication. The effects of tongue-strengthening exercises (TSE) on TS, swallowing, and quality of life (QoL) have not been studied in this population.

Methods A prospective phase 2 study using an 8 weeks during TSE protocol was carried out in 15 patients with chronic RAD. Outcome parameters were maximal isometric pressure (MIP), TS during swallowing (Pswal), swallowing function, and QoL. All parameters were evaluated at baseline, after 4 and 8 weeks of training, and 4 weeks after the last training session.

Results MIP increased significantly, without detraining effects. Pswal did not increase significantly, but relevant effect sizes were measured. Swallowing function ameliorated, but did not result in increased functional oral intake, self-reported outcome or QoL.

Conclusion TSE in patients with RAD results in increased strength and swallowing function.}},
  author       = {{Van den Steen, Leen and Baudelet, Margot and Tomassen, Peter and Bonte, Katrien and De Bodt, Marc and Van Nuffelen, Gwen}},
  issn         = {{1043-3074}},
  journal      = {{HEAD AND NECK - JOURNAL FOR THE SCIENCES AND SPECIALTIES OF THE HEAD AND NECK}},
  keywords     = {{Otorhinolaryngology,dysphagia,head and neck cancer,radiation-associated dysphagia,rehabilitation,tongue-strengthening exercises,QUALITY-OF-LIFE,NECK-CANCER,LINGUAL EXERCISE,STROKE PATIENTS,HEAD,RADIOTHERAPY,DISORDERS,EFFICACY,THERAPY,PERFORMANCE}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{9}},
  pages        = {{2298--2307}},
  title        = {{The effect of tongue‐strengthening exercises on tongue strength and swallowing‐related parameters in chronic radiation‐associated dysphagia}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hed.26179}},
  volume       = {{42}},
  year         = {{2020}},
}

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