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The co-reactant role during plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition of palladium

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Abstract
Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of noble metals is an attractive technology potentially applied in nanoelectronics and catalysis. Unlike the combustion-like mechanism shown by other noble metal ALD processes, the main palladium (Pd) ALD process using palladium(II)hexafluoroacetylacetonate [Pd(hfac)2] as precursor is based on true reducing surface chemistry. In this work, a thorough investigation of plasma-enhanced Pd ALD is carried out by employing this precursor with different plasmas (H2*, NH3*, O2*) and plasma sequences (H2* + O2*, O2* + H2*) as co-reactants at varying temperatures, providing insights in the co-reactant and temperature dependence of the Pd growth per cycle (GPC). At all temperatures, films grown with only reducing co-reactants contain a large amount of carbon, while an additional O2* in the co-reactant sequence helps to obtain Pd films with much lower impurity concentrations. Remarkably, in situ XRD and SEM show an abrupt release of the carbon impurities during annealing at moderate temperatures in different atmospheres. In vacuo XPS measurements reveal the remaining species on the as-deposited surface after every exposure. Links are established between the particular surface termination prior to the precursor pulse and the observed differences in GPC, highlighting hydrogen as the key growth facilitator and carbon and oxygen as growth inhibitors. The increase in GPC with temperature for ALD sequences with H2* or NH3* prior to the precursor pulse is explained by an increase in the amount of hydrogen species that reside on the Pd surface which are available for reaction with the Pd(hfac)2 precursor.
Keywords
Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, General Physics and Astronomy

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MLA
Feng, Ji-Yu, et al. “The Co-Reactant Role during Plasma Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition of Palladium.” PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHEMICAL PHYSICS, no. 16, 2020, pp. 9124–36.
APA
Feng, J.-Y., Minjauw, M., Karuparambil Ramachandran, R., Van Daele, M., Poelman, H., Sajavaara, T., … Detavernier, C. (2020). The co-reactant role during plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition of palladium. PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHEMICAL PHYSICS, (16), 9124–9136.
Chicago author-date
Feng, Ji-Yu, Matthias Minjauw, Ranjith Karuparambil Ramachandran, Michiel Van Daele, Hilde Poelman, Timo Sajavaara, Jolien Dendooven, and Christophe Detavernier. 2020. “The Co-Reactant Role during Plasma Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition of Palladium.” PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHEMICAL PHYSICS, no. 16: 9124–36.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Feng, Ji-Yu, Matthias Minjauw, Ranjith Karuparambil Ramachandran, Michiel Van Daele, Hilde Poelman, Timo Sajavaara, Jolien Dendooven, and Christophe Detavernier. 2020. “The Co-Reactant Role during Plasma Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition of Palladium.” PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHEMICAL PHYSICS (16): 9124–9136.
Vancouver
1.
Feng J-Y, Minjauw M, Karuparambil Ramachandran R, Van Daele M, Poelman H, Sajavaara T, et al. The co-reactant role during plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition of palladium. PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHEMICAL PHYSICS. 2020;(16):9124–36.
IEEE
[1]
J.-Y. Feng et al., “The co-reactant role during plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition of palladium,” PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHEMICAL PHYSICS, no. 16, pp. 9124–9136, 2020.
@article{8660848,
  abstract     = {Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of noble metals is an attractive technology potentially applied in nanoelectronics and catalysis. Unlike the combustion-like mechanism shown by other noble metal ALD processes, the main palladium (Pd) ALD process using palladium(II)hexafluoroacetylacetonate [Pd(hfac)2] as precursor is based on true reducing surface chemistry. In this work, a thorough investigation of plasma-enhanced Pd ALD is carried out by employing this precursor with different plasmas (H2*, NH3*, O2*) and plasma sequences (H2* + O2*, O2* + H2*) as co-reactants at varying temperatures, providing insights in the co-reactant and temperature dependence of the Pd growth per cycle (GPC). At all temperatures, films grown with only reducing co-reactants contain a large amount of carbon, while an additional O2* in the co-reactant sequence helps to obtain Pd films with much lower impurity concentrations. Remarkably, in situ XRD and SEM show an abrupt release of the carbon impurities during annealing at moderate temperatures in different atmospheres. In vacuo XPS measurements reveal the remaining species on the as-deposited surface after every exposure. Links are established between the particular surface termination prior to the precursor pulse and the observed differences in GPC, highlighting hydrogen as the key growth facilitator and carbon and oxygen as growth inhibitors. The increase in GPC with temperature for ALD sequences with H2* or NH3* prior to the precursor pulse is explained by an increase in the amount of hydrogen species that reside on the Pd surface which are available for reaction with the Pd(hfac)2 precursor.},
  author       = {Feng, Ji-Yu and Minjauw, Matthias and Karuparambil Ramachandran, Ranjith and Van Daele, Michiel and Poelman, Hilde and Sajavaara, Timo and Dendooven, Jolien and Detavernier, Christophe},
  issn         = {1463-9076},
  journal      = {PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHEMICAL PHYSICS},
  keywords     = {Physical and Theoretical Chemistry,General Physics and Astronomy},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {16},
  pages        = {9124--9136},
  title        = {The co-reactant role during plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition of palladium},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cp00786b},
  year         = {2020},
}

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