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Statistical modeling of lower limb kinetics during deep squat and forward lunge

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Abstract
Purpose: Modern statistics and higher computational power have opened novel possibilities to complex data analysis. While gait has been the utmost described motion in quantitative human motion analysis, descriptions of more challenging movements like the squat or lunge are currently lacking in the literature. The hip and knee joints are exposed to high forces and cause high morbidity and costs. Pre-surgical kinetic data acquisition on a patient-specific anatomy is also scarce in the literature. Studying the normal inter-patient kinetic variability may lead to other comparable studies to initiate more personalized therapies within the orthopedics. Methods: Trials are performed by 50 healthy young males who were not overweight and approximately of the same age and activity level. Spatial marker trajectories and ground reaction force registrations are imported into the Anybody Modeling System based on subject-specific geometry and the state-of-the-art TLEM 2.0 dataset. Hip and knee joint reaction forces were obtained by a simulation with an inverse dynamics approach. With these forces, a statistical model that accounts for inter-subject variability was created. For this, we applied a principal component analysis in order to enable variance decomposition. This way, noise can be rejected and we still contemplate all waveform data, instead of using deduced spatiotemporal parameters like peak flexion or stride length as done in many gait analyses. In addition, this current paper is, to the authors' knowledge, the first to investigate the generalization of a kinetic model data toward the population. Results: Average knee reaction forces range up to 7.16 times body weight for the forwarded leg during lunge. Conversely, during squat, the load is evenly distributed. For both motions, a reliable and compact statistical model was created. In the lunge model, the first 12 modes accounts for 95.26% of inter-individual population variance. For the maximal-depth squat, this was 95.69% for the first 14 modes. Model accuracies will increase when including more principal components. Conclusion: Our model design was proved to be compact, accurate, and reliable. For models aimed at populations covering descriptive studies, the sample size must be at least 50.
Keywords
Biotechnology, Bioengineering, Histology, Biomedical Engineering, lower limb kinetics, inverse dynamics, principal component analysis, musculoskeletal model, validation analysis, PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS, KNEE-JOINT, PARAMETERS, IMPLANT, WEAR

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MLA
De Roeck, Joris, et al. “Statistical Modeling of Lower Limb Kinetics during Deep Squat and Forward Lunge.” FRONTIERS IN BIOENGINEERING AND BIOTECHNOLOGY, vol. 8, 2020, doi:10.3389/fbioe.2020.00233.
APA
De Roeck, J., Van Houcke, J., Almeida, D., Galibarov, P., De Roeck, L., & Audenaert, E. (2020). Statistical modeling of lower limb kinetics during deep squat and forward lunge. FRONTIERS IN BIOENGINEERING AND BIOTECHNOLOGY, 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2020.00233
Chicago author-date
De Roeck, Joris, Jan Van Houcke, D. Almeida, Pavel Galibarov, L. De Roeck, and Emmanuel Audenaert. 2020. “Statistical Modeling of Lower Limb Kinetics during Deep Squat and Forward Lunge.” FRONTIERS IN BIOENGINEERING AND BIOTECHNOLOGY 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2020.00233.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
De Roeck, Joris, Jan Van Houcke, D. Almeida, Pavel Galibarov, L. De Roeck, and Emmanuel Audenaert. 2020. “Statistical Modeling of Lower Limb Kinetics during Deep Squat and Forward Lunge.” FRONTIERS IN BIOENGINEERING AND BIOTECHNOLOGY 8. doi:10.3389/fbioe.2020.00233.
Vancouver
1.
De Roeck J, Van Houcke J, Almeida D, Galibarov P, De Roeck L, Audenaert E. Statistical modeling of lower limb kinetics during deep squat and forward lunge. FRONTIERS IN BIOENGINEERING AND BIOTECHNOLOGY. 2020;8.
IEEE
[1]
J. De Roeck, J. Van Houcke, D. Almeida, P. Galibarov, L. De Roeck, and E. Audenaert, “Statistical modeling of lower limb kinetics during deep squat and forward lunge,” FRONTIERS IN BIOENGINEERING AND BIOTECHNOLOGY, vol. 8, 2020.
@article{8660648,
  abstract     = {{Purpose: Modern statistics and higher computational power have opened novel possibilities to complex data analysis. While gait has been the utmost described motion in quantitative human motion analysis, descriptions of more challenging movements like the squat or lunge are currently lacking in the literature. The hip and knee joints are exposed to high forces and cause high morbidity and costs. Pre-surgical kinetic data acquisition on a patient-specific anatomy is also scarce in the literature. Studying the normal inter-patient kinetic variability may lead to other comparable studies to initiate more personalized therapies within the orthopedics.

Methods: Trials are performed by 50 healthy young males who were not overweight and approximately of the same age and activity level. Spatial marker trajectories and ground reaction force registrations are imported into the Anybody Modeling System based on subject-specific geometry and the state-of-the-art TLEM 2.0 dataset. Hip and knee joint reaction forces were obtained by a simulation with an inverse dynamics approach. With these forces, a statistical model that accounts for inter-subject variability was created. For this, we applied a principal component analysis in order to enable variance decomposition. This way, noise can be rejected and we still contemplate all waveform data, instead of using deduced spatiotemporal parameters like peak flexion or stride length as done in many gait analyses. In addition, this current paper is, to the authors' knowledge, the first to investigate the generalization of a kinetic model data toward the population.

Results: Average knee reaction forces range up to 7.16 times body weight for the forwarded leg during lunge. Conversely, during squat, the load is evenly distributed. For both motions, a reliable and compact statistical model was created. In the lunge model, the first 12 modes accounts for 95.26% of inter-individual population variance. For the maximal-depth squat, this was 95.69% for the first 14 modes. Model accuracies will increase when including more principal components.

Conclusion: Our model design was proved to be compact, accurate, and reliable. For models aimed at populations covering descriptive studies, the sample size must be at least 50.}},
  articleno    = {{233}},
  author       = {{De Roeck, Joris and Van Houcke, Jan and Almeida, D. and Galibarov, Pavel and De Roeck, L. and Audenaert, Emmanuel}},
  issn         = {{2296-4185}},
  journal      = {{FRONTIERS IN BIOENGINEERING AND BIOTECHNOLOGY}},
  keywords     = {{Biotechnology,Bioengineering,Histology,Biomedical Engineering,lower limb kinetics,inverse dynamics,principal component analysis,musculoskeletal model,validation analysis,PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS,KNEE-JOINT,PARAMETERS,IMPLANT,WEAR}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{17}},
  title        = {{Statistical modeling of lower limb kinetics during deep squat and forward lunge}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2020.00233}},
  volume       = {{8}},
  year         = {{2020}},
}

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