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Listener evaluations of violins made from composites

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Abstract
For centuries, wood, and more specifically spruce, has been the material of choice for violin top plates. Lately, carbon fiber instruments have entered the market. Some studies show that composite materials have potential advantages for making instruments [Damodaran, Lessard, and Babu, Acoust. Aust. 43, 117-122 (2015)]. However, no studies exist that evaluate violins made of different composite materials as judged by listeners. For this study, six prototype violins, differing only by the material of the top plate, were manufactured in a controlled laboratory setting. The six prototype violins were judged by experienced listeners in two double-blind experiments. In contrast to popular opinion that violins made from carbon have or lack a specific sound quality, the study provides insights in the diverse sounds and timbres violins from fiber-reinforced polymers can create. It allows an investigation of the links between the perception and the variations in material properties of the soundboards. Additionally, as neither players nor listeners are acquainted with these instruments, these results provide an interesting view on what type of qualities of violin-like sounds are preferred by listeners.
Keywords
Acoustics and Ultrasonics, Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous), PERCEPTUAL EVALUATION, MUSICAL-INSTRUMENTS

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MLA
Duerinck, Tim, et al. “Listener Evaluations of Violins Made from Composites.” JOURNAL OF THE ACOUSTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA, vol. 147, no. 4, 2020, pp. 2647–55, doi:10.1121/10.0001159.
APA
Duerinck, T., Verberkmoes, G., Fritz, C., Leman, M., Nijs, L., Kersemans, M., & Van Paepegem, W. (2020). Listener evaluations of violins made from composites. JOURNAL OF THE ACOUSTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA, 147(4), 2647–2655. https://doi.org/10.1121/10.0001159
Chicago author-date
Duerinck, Tim, Geerten Verberkmoes, Claudia Fritz, Marc Leman, Luc Nijs, Mathias Kersemans, and Wim Van Paepegem. 2020. “Listener Evaluations of Violins Made from Composites.” JOURNAL OF THE ACOUSTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA 147 (4): 2647–55. https://doi.org/10.1121/10.0001159.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Duerinck, Tim, Geerten Verberkmoes, Claudia Fritz, Marc Leman, Luc Nijs, Mathias Kersemans, and Wim Van Paepegem. 2020. “Listener Evaluations of Violins Made from Composites.” JOURNAL OF THE ACOUSTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA 147 (4): 2647–2655. doi:10.1121/10.0001159.
Vancouver
1.
Duerinck T, Verberkmoes G, Fritz C, Leman M, Nijs L, Kersemans M, et al. Listener evaluations of violins made from composites. JOURNAL OF THE ACOUSTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA. 2020;147(4):2647–55.
IEEE
[1]
T. Duerinck et al., “Listener evaluations of violins made from composites,” JOURNAL OF THE ACOUSTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA, vol. 147, no. 4, pp. 2647–2655, 2020.
@article{8660210,
  abstract     = {{For centuries, wood, and more specifically spruce, has been the material of choice for violin top plates. Lately, carbon fiber instruments have entered the market. Some studies show that composite materials have potential advantages for making instruments [Damodaran, Lessard, and Babu, Acoust. Aust. 43, 117-122 (2015)]. However, no studies exist that evaluate violins made of different composite materials as judged by listeners. For this study, six prototype violins, differing only by the material of the top plate, were manufactured in a controlled laboratory setting. The six prototype violins were judged by experienced listeners in two double-blind experiments. In contrast to popular opinion that violins made from carbon have or lack a specific sound quality, the study provides insights in the diverse sounds and timbres violins from fiber-reinforced polymers can create. It allows an investigation of the links between the perception and the variations in material properties of the soundboards. Additionally, as neither players nor listeners are acquainted with these instruments, these results provide an interesting view on what type of qualities of violin-like sounds are preferred by listeners.}},
  author       = {{Duerinck, Tim and Verberkmoes, Geerten and Fritz, Claudia and Leman, Marc and Nijs, Luc and Kersemans, Mathias and Van Paepegem, Wim}},
  issn         = {{0001-4966}},
  journal      = {{JOURNAL OF THE ACOUSTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA}},
  keywords     = {{Acoustics and Ultrasonics,Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous),PERCEPTUAL EVALUATION,MUSICAL-INSTRUMENTS}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{4}},
  pages        = {{2647--2655}},
  title        = {{Listener evaluations of violins made from composites}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/10.0001159}},
  volume       = {{147}},
  year         = {{2020}},
}

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