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Surface functionalization with polyethylene glycol and polyethyleneimine improves the performance of graphene-based materials for safe and efficient intracellular delivery by laser-induced photoporation

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Abstract
Nanoparticle mediated laser-induced photoporation is a physical cell membrane disruption approach to directly deliver extrinsic molecules into living cells, which is particularly promising in applications for both adherent and suspension cells. In this work, we explored surface modifications of graphene quantum dots (GQD) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyethyleneimine (PEI) to enhance colloidal stability while retaining photoporation functionality. After photoporation with FITC-dextran 10 kDa (FD10), the percentage of positive HeLa cells (81% for GQD-PEG, 74% for rGO-PEG and 90% for rGO-PEI) increased approximately two-fold compared to the bare nanomaterials. While for Jurkat suspension cells, the photoporation efficiency with polymer-modified graphene-based nanomaterial reached as high as 80%. Cell viability was >80% in all these cases. In addition, polymer functionalization proved to be beneficial for the delivery of larger macromolecules (FD70 and FD500) as well. Finally, we show that rGO is suitable for photoporation using a near-infrared laser to reach 80% FD10 positive HeLa cells at 80% cell viability. We conclude that modification of graphene-based nanoparticles with PEG and especially PEI provide better colloidal stability in cell medium, resulting in more uniform transfection and overall increased efficiency.
Keywords
Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Organic Chemistry, Spectroscopy, Molecular Biology, Catalysis, General Medicine, Computer Science Applications, photoporation, intracellular delivery, nanomaterial functionalization, graphene-based materials, colloidal stability, NEAR-INFRARED ABSORBENCY, IN-VIVO, GOLD NANOPARTICLES, OXIDE, NANOMATERIALS, BUBBLES, SIZE

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MLA
Liu, Jing, et al. “Surface Functionalization with Polyethylene Glycol and Polyethyleneimine Improves the Performance of Graphene-Based Materials for Safe and Efficient Intracellular Delivery by Laser-Induced Photoporation.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES, vol. 21, no. 4, 2020, doi:10.3390/ijms21041540.
APA
Liu, J., Li, C., Brans, T., Harizaj, A., Van de Steene, S., De Beer, T., … Braeckmans, K. (2020). Surface functionalization with polyethylene glycol and polyethyleneimine improves the performance of graphene-based materials for safe and efficient intracellular delivery by laser-induced photoporation. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES, 21(4). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21041540
Chicago author-date
Liu, Jing, Chengnan Li, Toon Brans, Aranit Harizaj, Shana Van de Steene, Thomas De Beer, Stefaan De Smedt, et al. 2020. “Surface Functionalization with Polyethylene Glycol and Polyethyleneimine Improves the Performance of Graphene-Based Materials for Safe and Efficient Intracellular Delivery by Laser-Induced Photoporation.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES 21 (4). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21041540.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Liu, Jing, Chengnan Li, Toon Brans, Aranit Harizaj, Shana Van de Steene, Thomas De Beer, Stefaan De Smedt, Sabine Szunerits, Rabah Boukherroub, Ranhua Xiong, and Kevin Braeckmans. 2020. “Surface Functionalization with Polyethylene Glycol and Polyethyleneimine Improves the Performance of Graphene-Based Materials for Safe and Efficient Intracellular Delivery by Laser-Induced Photoporation.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES 21 (4). doi:10.3390/ijms21041540.
Vancouver
1.
Liu J, Li C, Brans T, Harizaj A, Van de Steene S, De Beer T, et al. Surface functionalization with polyethylene glycol and polyethyleneimine improves the performance of graphene-based materials for safe and efficient intracellular delivery by laser-induced photoporation. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES. 2020;21(4).
IEEE
[1]
J. Liu et al., “Surface functionalization with polyethylene glycol and polyethyleneimine improves the performance of graphene-based materials for safe and efficient intracellular delivery by laser-induced photoporation,” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES, vol. 21, no. 4, 2020.
@article{8659977,
  abstract     = {Nanoparticle mediated laser-induced photoporation is a physical cell membrane disruption approach to directly deliver extrinsic molecules into living cells, which is particularly promising in applications for both adherent and suspension cells. In this work, we explored surface modifications of graphene quantum dots (GQD) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyethyleneimine (PEI) to enhance colloidal stability while retaining photoporation functionality. After photoporation with FITC-dextran 10 kDa (FD10), the percentage of positive HeLa cells (81% for GQD-PEG, 74% for rGO-PEG and 90% for rGO-PEI) increased approximately two-fold compared to the bare nanomaterials. While for Jurkat suspension cells, the photoporation efficiency with polymer-modified graphene-based nanomaterial reached as high as 80%. Cell viability was >80% in all these cases. In addition, polymer functionalization proved to be beneficial for the delivery of larger macromolecules (FD70 and FD500) as well. Finally, we show that rGO is suitable for photoporation using a near-infrared laser to reach 80% FD10 positive HeLa cells at 80% cell viability. We conclude that modification of graphene-based nanoparticles with PEG and especially PEI provide better colloidal stability in cell medium, resulting in more uniform transfection and overall increased efficiency.},
  articleno    = {1540},
  author       = {Liu, Jing and Li, Chengnan and Brans, Toon and Harizaj, Aranit and Van de Steene, Shana and De Beer, Thomas and De Smedt, Stefaan and Szunerits, Sabine and Boukherroub, Rabah and Xiong, Ranhua and Braeckmans, Kevin},
  issn         = {1422-0067},
  journal      = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES},
  keywords     = {Physical and Theoretical Chemistry,Inorganic Chemistry,Organic Chemistry,Spectroscopy,Molecular Biology,Catalysis,General Medicine,Computer Science Applications,photoporation,intracellular delivery,nanomaterial functionalization,graphene-based materials,colloidal stability,NEAR-INFRARED ABSORBENCY,IN-VIVO,GOLD NANOPARTICLES,OXIDE,NANOMATERIALS,BUBBLES,SIZE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {16},
  title        = {Surface functionalization with polyethylene glycol and polyethyleneimine improves the performance of graphene-based materials for safe and efficient intracellular delivery by laser-induced photoporation},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21041540},
  volume       = {21},
  year         = {2020},
}

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