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Rapid toxicity assessment of six antifouling booster biocides using a microplate-based chlorophyll fluorescence in Undaria pinnatifida gametophytes

Hojun Lee (UGent) , Stephen Depuydt (UGent) , Soyeon Choi, Taejun Han (UGent) and Jihae Park
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Abstract
Biocides of antifouling agents can cause problems in marine ecosystems by damaging to non-target algal species. Aquatic bioassays are important means of assessing the quality of water containing mixtures of contaminants and of providing a safety standard for water management in an ecological context. In this study, a rapid, sensitive and inexpensive test method was developed using free-living male and female gametophytes of the brown macroalga Undaria pinnatifida. A conventional fluorometer was employed to evaluate the acute (48 h) toxic effects of six antifouling biocides: 4,5-Dichloro-2-octyl-isothiazolone (DCOIT), diuron, irgarol, medetomidine, tolylfluanid, zinc pyrithione (ZnPT). The decreasing toxicity in male and female gametophytes as estimated by EC50 (effective concentration at which 50% inhibition occurs) values was: diuron (0.037 and 0.128 mg l(-1), respectively) > irgarol (0.096 and 0.172 mg l(-1), respectively) > tolylfluanid (0.238 and 1.028 mg l(-1), respectively) > DCOIT (1.015 and 0.890 mg l(-1), respectively) > medetomidine (12.032 and 12.763 mg l(-1), respectively). For ZnPT, 50% fluorescence inhibition of U. pinnatifida gametophytes occurred at concentrations above 0.4 mg l(-1). The Undaria method is rapid, simple, practical, and cost-effective for the detection of photosynthesis-inhibiting biocides, thus making a useful tool for testing the toxicity of antifouling agents in marine environments.
Keywords
Toxicology, Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis, Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law, General Medicine

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MLA
Lee, Hojun, et al. “Rapid Toxicity Assessment of Six Antifouling Booster Biocides Using a Microplate-Based Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Undaria Pinnatifida Gametophytes.” ECOTOXICOLOGY, 2020.
APA
Lee, H., Depuydt, S., Choi, S., Han, T., & Park, J. (2020). Rapid toxicity assessment of six antifouling booster biocides using a microplate-based chlorophyll fluorescence in Undaria pinnatifida gametophytes. ECOTOXICOLOGY.
Chicago author-date
Lee, Hojun, Stephen Depuydt, Soyeon Choi, Taejun Han, and Jihae Park. 2020. “Rapid Toxicity Assessment of Six Antifouling Booster Biocides Using a Microplate-Based Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Undaria Pinnatifida Gametophytes.” ECOTOXICOLOGY.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Lee, Hojun, Stephen Depuydt, Soyeon Choi, Taejun Han, and Jihae Park. 2020. “Rapid Toxicity Assessment of Six Antifouling Booster Biocides Using a Microplate-Based Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Undaria Pinnatifida Gametophytes.” ECOTOXICOLOGY.
Vancouver
1.
Lee H, Depuydt S, Choi S, Han T, Park J. Rapid toxicity assessment of six antifouling booster biocides using a microplate-based chlorophyll fluorescence in Undaria pinnatifida gametophytes. ECOTOXICOLOGY. 2020;
IEEE
[1]
H. Lee, S. Depuydt, S. Choi, T. Han, and J. Park, “Rapid toxicity assessment of six antifouling booster biocides using a microplate-based chlorophyll fluorescence in Undaria pinnatifida gametophytes,” ECOTOXICOLOGY, 2020.
@article{8659844,
  abstract     = {Biocides of antifouling agents can cause problems in marine ecosystems by damaging to non-target algal species. Aquatic bioassays are important means of assessing the quality of water containing mixtures of contaminants and of providing a safety standard for water management in an ecological context. In this study, a rapid, sensitive and inexpensive test method was developed using free-living male and female gametophytes of the brown macroalga Undaria pinnatifida. A conventional fluorometer was employed to evaluate the acute (48 h) toxic effects of six antifouling biocides: 4,5-Dichloro-2-octyl-isothiazolone (DCOIT), diuron, irgarol, medetomidine, tolylfluanid, zinc pyrithione (ZnPT). The decreasing toxicity in male and female gametophytes as estimated by EC50 (effective concentration at which 50% inhibition occurs) values was: diuron (0.037 and 0.128 mg l(-1), respectively) > irgarol (0.096 and 0.172 mg l(-1), respectively) > tolylfluanid (0.238 and 1.028 mg l(-1), respectively) > DCOIT (1.015 and 0.890 mg l(-1), respectively) > medetomidine (12.032 and 12.763 mg l(-1), respectively). For ZnPT, 50% fluorescence inhibition of U. pinnatifida gametophytes occurred at concentrations above 0.4 mg l(-1). The Undaria method is rapid, simple, practical, and cost-effective for the detection of photosynthesis-inhibiting biocides, thus making a useful tool for testing the toxicity of antifouling agents in marine environments.},
  author       = {Lee, Hojun and Depuydt, Stephen and Choi, Soyeon and Han, Taejun and Park, Jihae},
  issn         = {0963-9292},
  journal      = {ECOTOXICOLOGY},
  keywords     = {Toxicology,Health,Toxicology and Mutagenesis,Management,Monitoring,Policy and Law,General Medicine},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {12},
  title        = {Rapid toxicity assessment of six antifouling booster biocides using a microplate-based chlorophyll fluorescence in Undaria pinnatifida gametophytes},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10646-020-02207-2},
  year         = {2020},
}

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