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Multi-scale gapped smoothing algorithm for robust baseline-free damage detection in optical infrared thermography

Gaétan Poelman (UGent) , Saeid Hedayatrasa (UGent) , Joost Segers (UGent) , Wim Van Paepegem (UGent) and Mathias Kersemans (UGent)
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Abstract
Flash thermography is a promising technique to perform rapid non-destructive testing of composite materials. However, it is well known that several difficulties are inherently paired with this approach, such as non-uniform heating, measurement noise and lateral heat diffusion effects. Hence, advanced signal-processing techniques are indispensable in order to analyze the recorded dataset. One such processing technique is Gapped Smoothing Algorithm, which predicts a gapped pixel’s value in its sound state from a measurement in the defected state by evaluating only its neighboring pixels. However, the standard Gapped Smoothing Algorithm uses a fixed spatial gap size, which induces issues to detect variable defect sizes in a noisy dataset. In this paper, a Multi-Scale Gapped Smoothing Algorithm (MSGSA) is introduced as a baseline-free image processing technique and an extension to the standard Gapped Smoothing Algorithm. The MSGSA makes use of the evaluation of a wide range of spatial gap sizes so that defects of highly different dimensions are identified. Moreover, it is shown that a weighted combination of all assessed spatial gap sizes significantly improves the detectability of defects and results in an (almost) zero-reference background. The technique thus effectively suppresses the measurement noise and excitation non-uniformity. The efficiency of the MSGSA technique is evaluated and confirmed through numerical simulation and an experimental procedure of flash thermography on carbon fiber reinforced polymers with various defect sizes.
Keywords
Multi-scale gapped smoothing algorithm (MSGSA), Non-destructive testing (NDT), Flash thermography, Image processing, Composites, CFRP, NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION, COMPOSITES

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MLA
Poelman, Gaétan, et al. “Multi-Scale Gapped Smoothing Algorithm for Robust Baseline-Free Damage Detection in Optical Infrared Thermography.” NDT & E INTERNATIONAL, vol. 112, 2020, doi:10.1016/j.ndteint.2020.102247.
APA
Poelman, G., Hedayatrasa, S., Segers, J., Van Paepegem, W., & Kersemans, M. (2020). Multi-scale gapped smoothing algorithm for robust baseline-free damage detection in optical infrared thermography. NDT & E INTERNATIONAL, 112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ndteint.2020.102247
Chicago author-date
Poelman, Gaétan, Saeid Hedayatrasa, Joost Segers, Wim Van Paepegem, and Mathias Kersemans. 2020. “Multi-Scale Gapped Smoothing Algorithm for Robust Baseline-Free Damage Detection in Optical Infrared Thermography.” NDT & E INTERNATIONAL 112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ndteint.2020.102247.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Poelman, Gaétan, Saeid Hedayatrasa, Joost Segers, Wim Van Paepegem, and Mathias Kersemans. 2020. “Multi-Scale Gapped Smoothing Algorithm for Robust Baseline-Free Damage Detection in Optical Infrared Thermography.” NDT & E INTERNATIONAL 112. doi:10.1016/j.ndteint.2020.102247.
Vancouver
1.
Poelman G, Hedayatrasa S, Segers J, Van Paepegem W, Kersemans M. Multi-scale gapped smoothing algorithm for robust baseline-free damage detection in optical infrared thermography. NDT & E INTERNATIONAL. 2020;112.
IEEE
[1]
G. Poelman, S. Hedayatrasa, J. Segers, W. Van Paepegem, and M. Kersemans, “Multi-scale gapped smoothing algorithm for robust baseline-free damage detection in optical infrared thermography,” NDT & E INTERNATIONAL, vol. 112, 2020.
@article{8659402,
  abstract     = {Flash thermography is a promising technique to perform rapid non-destructive testing of composite materials. However, it is well known that several difficulties are inherently paired with this approach, such as non-uniform heating, measurement noise and lateral heat diffusion effects. Hence, advanced signal-processing techniques are indispensable in order to analyze the recorded dataset. One such processing technique is Gapped Smoothing Algorithm, which predicts a gapped pixel’s value in its sound state from a measurement in the defected state by evaluating only its neighboring pixels. However, the standard Gapped Smoothing Algorithm uses a fixed spatial gap size, which induces issues to detect variable defect sizes in a noisy dataset. 
In this paper, a Multi-Scale Gapped Smoothing Algorithm (MSGSA) is introduced as a baseline-free image processing technique and an extension to the standard Gapped Smoothing Algorithm. The MSGSA makes use of the evaluation of a wide range of spatial gap sizes so that defects of highly different dimensions are identified. Moreover, it is shown that a weighted combination of all assessed spatial gap sizes significantly improves the detectability of defects and results in an (almost) zero-reference background. The technique thus effectively suppresses the measurement noise and excitation non-uniformity. The efficiency of the MSGSA technique is evaluated and confirmed through numerical simulation and an experimental procedure of flash thermography on carbon fiber reinforced polymers with various defect sizes.},
  articleno    = {102247},
  author       = {Poelman, Gaétan and Hedayatrasa, Saeid and Segers, Joost and Van Paepegem, Wim and Kersemans, Mathias},
  issn         = {0963-8695},
  journal      = {NDT & E INTERNATIONAL},
  keywords     = {Multi-scale gapped smoothing algorithm (MSGSA),Non-destructive testing (NDT),Flash thermography,Image processing,Composites,CFRP,NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION,COMPOSITES},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {9},
  title        = {Multi-scale gapped smoothing algorithm for robust baseline-free damage detection in optical infrared thermography},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ndteint.2020.102247},
  volume       = {112},
  year         = {2020},
}

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