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Replacements of small- by large-ranged species scale up to diversity loss in Europe’s temperate forest biome

(2020) NATURE ECOLOGY & EVOLUTION. 4(6). p.802-808
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Abstract
The loss of biodiversity at the global scale has been difficult to reconcile with observations of no net loss at local scales. Vegetation surveys across European temperate forests show that this may be explained by the replacement of small-ranged species with large-ranged ones, driven by nitrogen deposition. Biodiversity time series reveal global losses and accelerated redistributions of species, but no net loss in local species richness. To better understand how these patterns are linked, we quantify how individual species trajectories scale up to diversity changes using data from 68 vegetation resurvey studies of seminatural forests in Europe. Herb-layer species with small geographic ranges are being replaced by more widely distributed species, and our results suggest that this is due less to species abundances than to species nitrogen niches. Nitrogen deposition accelerates the extinctions of small-ranged, nitrogen-efficient plants and colonization by broadly distributed, nitrogen-demanding plants (including non-natives). Despite no net change in species richness at the spatial scale of a study site, the losses of small-ranged species reduce biome-scale (gamma) diversity. These results provide one mechanism to explain the directional replacement of small-ranged species within sites and thus explain patterns of biodiversity change across spatial scales.
Keywords
LOCAL BIODIVERSITY CHANGE, NITROGEN DEPOSITION, INDICATOR VALUES, PLANT DIVERSITY, NICHE BREADTH, ABUNDANCE, SIZE, LIFE, ECOSYSTEMS, STRATEGIES

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MLA
Staude, Ingmar R., et al. “Replacements of Small- by Large-Ranged Species Scale up to Diversity Loss in Europe’s Temperate Forest Biome.” NATURE ECOLOGY & EVOLUTION, vol. 4, no. 6, 2020, pp. 802–08, doi:10.1038/s41559-020-1176-8.
APA
Staude, I. R., Waller, D. M., Bernhardt-Römermann, M., Bjorkman, A. D., Brunet, J., De Frenne, P., … Baeten, L. (2020). Replacements of small- by large-ranged species scale up to diversity loss in Europe’s temperate forest biome. NATURE ECOLOGY & EVOLUTION, 4(6), 802–808. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-020-1176-8
Chicago author-date
Staude, Ingmar R., Donald M. Waller, Markus Bernhardt-Römermann, Anne D. Bjorkman, Jörg Brunet, Pieter De Frenne, Radim Hédl, et al. 2020. “Replacements of Small- by Large-Ranged Species Scale up to Diversity Loss in Europe’s Temperate Forest Biome.” NATURE ECOLOGY & EVOLUTION 4 (6): 802–8. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-020-1176-8.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Staude, Ingmar R., Donald M. Waller, Markus Bernhardt-Römermann, Anne D. Bjorkman, Jörg Brunet, Pieter De Frenne, Radim Hédl, Ute Jandt, Jonathan Lenoir, František Máliš, Kris Verheyen, Monika Wulf, Henrique M. Pereira, Pieter Vangansbeke, Adrienne Ortmann-Ajkai, Remigiusz Pielech, Imre Berki, Markéta Chudomelová, Guillaume Decocq, Thomas Dirnböck, Tomasz Durak, Thilo Heinken, Bogdan Jaroszewicz, Martin Kopecký, Martin Macek, Marek Malicki, Tobias Naaf, Thomas A. Nagel, Petr Petřík, Kamila Reczyńska, Fride Høistad Schei, Wolfgang Schmidt, Tibor Standovár, Krzysztof Świerkosz, Balázs Teleki, Hans Van Calster, Ondřej Vild, and Lander Baeten. 2020. “Replacements of Small- by Large-Ranged Species Scale up to Diversity Loss in Europe’s Temperate Forest Biome.” NATURE ECOLOGY & EVOLUTION 4 (6): 802–808. doi:10.1038/s41559-020-1176-8.
Vancouver
1.
Staude IR, Waller DM, Bernhardt-Römermann M, Bjorkman AD, Brunet J, De Frenne P, et al. Replacements of small- by large-ranged species scale up to diversity loss in Europe’s temperate forest biome. NATURE ECOLOGY & EVOLUTION. 2020;4(6):802–8.
IEEE
[1]
I. R. Staude et al., “Replacements of small- by large-ranged species scale up to diversity loss in Europe’s temperate forest biome,” NATURE ECOLOGY & EVOLUTION, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 802–808, 2020.
@article{8658557,
  abstract     = {The loss of biodiversity at the global scale has been difficult to reconcile with observations of no net loss at local scales. Vegetation surveys across European temperate forests show that this may be explained by the replacement of small-ranged species with large-ranged ones, driven by nitrogen deposition.
Biodiversity time series reveal global losses and accelerated redistributions of species, but no net loss in local species richness. To better understand how these patterns are linked, we quantify how individual species trajectories scale up to diversity changes using data from 68 vegetation resurvey studies of seminatural forests in Europe. Herb-layer species with small geographic ranges are being replaced by more widely distributed species, and our results suggest that this is due less to species abundances than to species nitrogen niches. Nitrogen deposition accelerates the extinctions of small-ranged, nitrogen-efficient plants and colonization by broadly distributed, nitrogen-demanding plants (including non-natives). Despite no net change in species richness at the spatial scale of a study site, the losses of small-ranged species reduce biome-scale (gamma) diversity. These results provide one mechanism to explain the directional replacement of small-ranged species within sites and thus explain patterns of biodiversity change across spatial scales.},
  author       = {Staude, Ingmar R. and Waller, Donald M. and Bernhardt-Römermann, Markus and Bjorkman, Anne D. and Brunet, Jörg and De Frenne, Pieter and Hédl, Radim and Jandt, Ute and Lenoir, Jonathan and Máliš, František and Verheyen, Kris and Wulf, Monika and Pereira, Henrique M. and Vangansbeke, Pieter and Ortmann-Ajkai, Adrienne and Pielech, Remigiusz and Berki, Imre and Chudomelová, Markéta and Decocq, Guillaume and Dirnböck, Thomas and Durak, Tomasz and Heinken, Thilo and Jaroszewicz, Bogdan and Kopecký, Martin and Macek, Martin and Malicki, Marek and Naaf, Tobias and Nagel, Thomas A. and Petřík, Petr and Reczyńska, Kamila and Schei, Fride Høistad and Schmidt, Wolfgang and Standovár, Tibor and Świerkosz, Krzysztof and Teleki, Balázs and Van Calster, Hans and Vild, Ondřej and Baeten, Lander},
  issn         = {2397-334X},
  journal      = {NATURE ECOLOGY & EVOLUTION},
  keywords     = {LOCAL BIODIVERSITY CHANGE,NITROGEN DEPOSITION,INDICATOR VALUES,PLANT DIVERSITY,NICHE BREADTH,ABUNDANCE,SIZE,LIFE,ECOSYSTEMS,STRATEGIES},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {6},
  pages        = {802--808},
  title        = {Replacements of small- by large-ranged species scale up to diversity loss in Europe’s temperate forest biome},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41559-020-1176-8},
  volume       = {4},
  year         = {2020},
}

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