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Enhancement of Biomimetic Enzymatic Mineralization of Gellan Gum Polysaccharide Hydrogels by Plant-Derived Gallotannins

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Abstract
<jats:p>Mineralization of hydrogel biomaterials with calcium phosphate (CaP) is considered advantageous for bone regeneration. Mineralization can be both induced by the enzyme alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and promoted by calcium-binding biomolecules, such as plant-derived polyphenols. In this study, ALP-loaded gellan gum (GG) hydrogels were enriched with gallotannins, a subclass of polyphenols. Five preparations were compared, namely three tannic acids of differing molecular weight (MW), pentagalloyl glucose (PGG), and a gallotannin-rich extract from mango kernel (Mangifera indica L.). Certain gallotannin preparations promoted mineralization to a greater degree than others. The various gallotannin preparations bound differently to ALP and influenced the size of aggregates of ALP, which may be related to ability to promote mineralization. Human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells grew in eluate from mineralized hydrogels. Gallotannin incorporation impeded cell growth on hydrogels and did not impart antibacterial activity. In conclusion, gallotannin incorporation aided mineralization but reduced cytocompatibility.</jats:p>
Keywords
Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Organic Chemistry, Spectroscopy, Molecular Biology, Catalysis, General Medicine, Computer Science Applications

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MLA
Douglas, Timothy E. L., et al. “Enhancement of Biomimetic Enzymatic Mineralization of Gellan Gum Polysaccharide Hydrogels by Plant-Derived Gallotannins.” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 21, MDPI, 2020.
APA
Douglas, T. E. L., Keppler, J. K., Vandrovcová, M., Plencner, M., Beranová, J., Feuereisen, M., … Skirtach, A. (2020). Enhancement of Biomimetic Enzymatic Mineralization of Gellan Gum Polysaccharide Hydrogels by Plant-Derived Gallotannins. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 21.
Chicago author-date
Douglas, Timothy E. L., Julia K. Keppler, Marta Vandrovcová, Martin Plencner, Jana Beranová, Michelle Feuereisen, Bogdan Parakhonskiy, et al. 2020. “Enhancement of Biomimetic Enzymatic Mineralization of Gellan Gum Polysaccharide Hydrogels by Plant-Derived Gallotannins.” International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Douglas, Timothy E. L., Julia K. Keppler, Marta Vandrovcová, Martin Plencner, Jana Beranová, Michelle Feuereisen, Bogdan Parakhonskiy, Yulia Svenskaya, Vsevolod Atkin, Anna Ivanova, Patrick Ricquier, Lieve Balcaen, Frank Vanhaecke, Andreas Schieber, Lucie Bačáková, and Andre Skirtach. 2020. “Enhancement of Biomimetic Enzymatic Mineralization of Gellan Gum Polysaccharide Hydrogels by Plant-Derived Gallotannins.” International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21.
Vancouver
1.
Douglas TEL, Keppler JK, Vandrovcová M, Plencner M, Beranová J, Feuereisen M, et al. Enhancement of Biomimetic Enzymatic Mineralization of Gellan Gum Polysaccharide Hydrogels by Plant-Derived Gallotannins. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020;21.
IEEE
[1]
T. E. L. Douglas et al., “Enhancement of Biomimetic Enzymatic Mineralization of Gellan Gum Polysaccharide Hydrogels by Plant-Derived Gallotannins,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 21, 2020.
@article{8656239,
  abstract     = {<jats:p>Mineralization of hydrogel biomaterials with calcium phosphate (CaP) is considered advantageous for bone regeneration. Mineralization can be both induced by the enzyme alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and promoted by calcium-binding biomolecules, such as plant-derived polyphenols. In this study, ALP-loaded gellan gum (GG) hydrogels were enriched with gallotannins, a subclass of polyphenols. Five preparations were compared, namely three tannic acids of differing molecular weight (MW), pentagalloyl glucose (PGG), and a gallotannin-rich extract from mango kernel (Mangifera indica L.). Certain gallotannin preparations promoted mineralization to a greater degree than others. The various gallotannin preparations bound differently to ALP and influenced the size of aggregates of ALP, which may be related to ability to promote mineralization. Human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells grew in eluate from mineralized hydrogels. Gallotannin incorporation impeded cell growth on hydrogels and did not impart antibacterial activity. In conclusion, gallotannin incorporation aided mineralization but reduced cytocompatibility.</jats:p>},
  articleno    = {2315},
  author       = {Douglas, Timothy E. L. and Keppler, Julia K. and Vandrovcová, Marta and Plencner, Martin and Beranová, Jana and Feuereisen, Michelle and Parakhonskiy, Bogdan and Svenskaya, Yulia and Atkin, Vsevolod and Ivanova, Anna and Ricquier, Patrick and Balcaen, Lieve and Vanhaecke, Frank and Schieber, Andreas and Bačáková, Lucie and Skirtach, Andre},
  issn         = {1422-0067},
  journal      = {International Journal of Molecular Sciences},
  keywords     = {Physical and Theoretical Chemistry,Inorganic Chemistry,Organic Chemistry,Spectroscopy,Molecular Biology,Catalysis,General Medicine,Computer Science Applications},
  language     = {eng},
  publisher    = {MDPI},
  title        = {Enhancement of Biomimetic Enzymatic Mineralization of Gellan Gum Polysaccharide Hydrogels by Plant-Derived Gallotannins},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21072315},
  volume       = {21},
  year         = {2020},
}

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