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Cervical articular process joint osteochondrosis in Warmblood foals

(2020) EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL. 52(5). p.664-669
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Abstract
Background: In Warmblood horses, degenerative joint disease is involved in cervical malformation and malarticulation (CVM). The degree of contribution of articular process joint (APJ) osteochondrosis (OC) is not clear. Objectives: (a) To explore the presence of predilection sites for APJ OC in cervical and cranial thoracic vertebral columns of Warmblood foals and (b) to examine the correlation of such a site with the predilection site of CVM. Study design: Case series. Methods: Seven hundred APJ facets of C2 to T2 of 29 foals (11 months gestation to 12 months [median age 7 days; range 365 days; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 2-47 days]) were examined for OC and prevalence between joints, and the predilection site for CVM and the cranial cervical vertebral column were evaluated. Results: About 20.6% of facets revealed OC. There was no predilection site. Prevalence decreased with age up to 1 year (odds ratio [OR] 0.997; (95% CI 0.975-0.998)) but not up to 5 months. Severity increased with age in all age ranges (up to 1 year OR 1.023; 95% CI 1.005-1.049; >1-5 months, OR 1.203; 95% CI 1.014e+00-1.921; up to 1 month, OR 1.114; 95% CI 1.041-1.228). Highest prevalence was in cranial facets of the cervical and cervical-thoracic joints and in caudal facets of the thoracic joint up to 1 year and up to 1 month (OR 0.364; 95% CI 0.170-0.745, OR 0.434; 95% CI: 0.235-0.782, OR 7.665; 95% CI: 1.615-66.553 and OR 0.400; 95% CI 0.170-0.880, OR 0.351; 95% CI 0.172-0.700, OR 5.317; 95% CI 1.098-44.344 respectively). Main limitations: Two-thirds of the foals were less than 1 month of age. Conclusions: Articular process joint OC in Warmblood foals is common and is not more prevalent at CVM predilection sites, suggesting that abnormalities of enchondral ossification may not be major contributors to CVM.
Keywords
VERTEBRAL MALFORMATION, HORSES, ASSOCIATIONS, PATHOGENESIS, LESIONS, horse, cervical vertebral malformation and malarticulation, predilection site

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MLA
Bergmann, Wilhelmina, et al. “Cervical Articular Process Joint Osteochondrosis in Warmblood Foals.” EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL, vol. 52, no. 5, 2020, pp. 664–69, doi:10.1111/evj.13245.
APA
Bergmann, W., de Mik-van Mourik, M., Veraa, S., van den Broek, J., Wijnberg, I. D., Back, W., & Grone, A. (2020). Cervical articular process joint osteochondrosis in Warmblood foals. EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL, 52(5), 664–669. https://doi.org/10.1111/evj.13245
Chicago author-date
Bergmann, Wilhelmina, Marjolijn de Mik-van Mourik, Stefanie Veraa, Jan van den Broek, Inge D. Wijnberg, Willem Back, and Andrea Grone. 2020. “Cervical Articular Process Joint Osteochondrosis in Warmblood Foals.” EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL 52 (5): 664–69. https://doi.org/10.1111/evj.13245.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Bergmann, Wilhelmina, Marjolijn de Mik-van Mourik, Stefanie Veraa, Jan van den Broek, Inge D. Wijnberg, Willem Back, and Andrea Grone. 2020. “Cervical Articular Process Joint Osteochondrosis in Warmblood Foals.” EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL 52 (5): 664–669. doi:10.1111/evj.13245.
Vancouver
1.
Bergmann W, de Mik-van Mourik M, Veraa S, van den Broek J, Wijnberg ID, Back W, et al. Cervical articular process joint osteochondrosis in Warmblood foals. EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL. 2020;52(5):664–9.
IEEE
[1]
W. Bergmann et al., “Cervical articular process joint osteochondrosis in Warmblood foals,” EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 664–669, 2020.
@article{8655562,
  abstract     = {Background: In Warmblood horses, degenerative joint disease is involved in cervical malformation and malarticulation (CVM). The degree of contribution of articular process joint (APJ) osteochondrosis (OC) is not clear.
Objectives: (a) To explore the presence of predilection sites for APJ OC in cervical and cranial thoracic vertebral columns of Warmblood foals and (b) to examine the correlation of such a site with the predilection site of CVM.
Study design: Case series.
Methods: Seven hundred APJ facets of C2 to T2 of 29 foals (11 months gestation to 12 months [median age 7 days; range 365 days; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 2-47 days]) were examined for OC and prevalence between joints, and the predilection site for CVM and the cranial cervical vertebral column were evaluated.
Results: About 20.6% of facets revealed OC. There was no predilection site. Prevalence decreased with age up to 1 year (odds ratio [OR] 0.997; (95% CI 0.975-0.998)) but not up to 5 months. Severity increased with age in all age ranges (up to 1 year OR 1.023; 95% CI 1.005-1.049; >1-5 months, OR 1.203; 95% CI 1.014e+00-1.921; up to 1 month, OR 1.114; 95% CI 1.041-1.228). Highest prevalence was in cranial facets of the cervical and cervical-thoracic joints and in caudal facets of the thoracic joint up to 1 year and up to 1 month (OR 0.364; 95% CI 0.170-0.745, OR 0.434; 95% CI: 0.235-0.782, OR 7.665; 95% CI: 1.615-66.553 and OR 0.400; 95% CI 0.170-0.880, OR 0.351; 95% CI 0.172-0.700, OR 5.317; 95% CI 1.098-44.344 respectively).
Main limitations: Two-thirds of the foals were less than 1 month of age.
Conclusions: Articular process joint OC in Warmblood foals is common and is not more prevalent at CVM predilection sites, suggesting that abnormalities of enchondral ossification may not be major contributors to CVM.},
  author       = {Bergmann, Wilhelmina and de Mik-van Mourik, Marjolijn and Veraa, Stefanie and van den Broek, Jan and Wijnberg, Inge D. and Back, Willem and Grone, Andrea},
  issn         = {0425-1644},
  journal      = {EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL},
  keywords     = {VERTEBRAL MALFORMATION,HORSES,ASSOCIATIONS,PATHOGENESIS,LESIONS,horse,cervical vertebral malformation and malarticulation,predilection site},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {5},
  pages        = {664--669},
  title        = {Cervical articular process joint osteochondrosis in Warmblood foals},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/evj.13245},
  volume       = {52},
  year         = {2020},
}

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