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European Society of Cardiology : cardiovascular disease statistics 2019

(2020) EUROPEAN HEART JOURNAL. 41(1). p.12-85
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Abstract
Aims: The 2019 report from the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Atlas provides a contemporary analysis of cardiovascular disease (CVD) statistics across 56 member countries, with particular emphasis on international inequalities in disease burden and healthcare delivery together with estimates of progress towards meeting 2025 World Health Organization (WHO) non-communicable disease targets. Methods and results: In this report, contemporary CVD statistics are presented for member countries of the ESC. The statistics are drawn from the ESC Atlas which is a repository of CVD data from a variety of sources including the WHO, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, and the World Bank. The Atlas also includes novel ESC sponsored data on human and capital infrastructure and cardiovascular healthcare delivery obtained by annual survey of the national societies of ESC member countries. Across ESC member countries, the prevalence of obesity (body mass index >= 30 kg/m(2)) and diabetes has increased two- to three-fold during the last 30years making the WHO 2025 target to halt rises in these risk factors unlikely to be achieved. More encouraging have been variable declines in hypertension, smoking, and alcohol consumption but on current trends only the reduction in smoking from 28% to 21% during the last 20years appears sufficient for the WHO target to be achieved. The median age-standardized prevalence of major risk factors was higher in middle-income compared with high-income ESC member countries for hypertension {23.8% [interquartile range (IQR) 22.5-23.1%] vs. 15.7% (IQR 14.5-21.1%)}, diabetes [7.7% (IQR 7.1-10.1%) vs. 5.6% (IQR 4.8-7.0%)], and among males smoking [43.8% (IQR 37.4-48.0%) vs. 26.0% (IQR 20.9-31.7%)] although among females smoking was less common in middle-income countries [8.7% (IQR 3.0-10.8) vs. 16.7% (IQR 13.9-19.7%)]. There were associated inequalities in disease burden with disability-adjusted life years per 100 000 people due to CVD over three times as high in middle-income [7160 (IQR 5655-8115)] compared with high-income [2235 (IQR 1896-3602)] countries. Cardiovascular disease mortality was also higher in middle-income countries where it accounted for a greater proportion of potential years of life lost compared with high-income countries in both females (43% vs. 28%) and males (39% vs. 28%). Despite the inequalities in disease burden across ESC member countries, survey data from the National Cardiac Societies of the ESC showed that middle-income member countries remain severely under-resourced compared with high-income countries in terms of cardiological person-power and technological infrastructure. Under-resourcing in middle-income countries is associated with a severe procedural deficit compared with high-income countries in terms of coronary intervention, device implantation and cardiac surgical procedures. Conclusion: A seemingly inexorable rise in the prevalence of obesity and diabetes currently provides the greatest challenge to achieving further reductions in CVD burden across ESC member countries. Additional challenges are provided by inequalities in disease burden that now require intensification of policy initiatives in order to reduce population risk and prioritize cardiovascular healthcare delivery, particularly in the middle-income countries of the ESC where need is greatest.
Keywords
Cardiovascular disease, Statistics, European Society of Cardiology, Health infrastructure, Service provision, Risk factors, Mortality, Morbidity, ACUTE MYOCARDIAL-INFARCTION, CORONARY-HEART-DISEASE, ALL-CAUSE MORTALITY, BLOOD-PRESSURE, GLOBAL BURDEN, ECONOMIC BURDEN, INDIVIDUAL DATA, NONCOMMUNICABLE DISEASES, PHYSICAL INACTIVITY, SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS

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Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

MLA
Timmis, Adam, et al. “European Society of Cardiology : Cardiovascular Disease Statistics 2019.” EUROPEAN HEART JOURNAL, vol. 41, no. 1, 2020, pp. 12–85.
APA
Timmis, A., Townsend, N., Gale, C. P., Torbica, A., Lettino, M., Petersen, S. E., … Flather, M. (2020). European Society of Cardiology : cardiovascular disease statistics 2019. EUROPEAN HEART JOURNAL, 41(1), 12–85.
Chicago author-date
Timmis, Adam, Nick Townsend, Chris P Gale, Aleksandra Torbica, Maddalena Lettino, Steffen E Petersen, Elias A Mossialos, et al. 2020. “European Society of Cardiology : Cardiovascular Disease Statistics 2019.” EUROPEAN HEART JOURNAL 41 (1): 12–85.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Timmis, Adam, Nick Townsend, Chris P Gale, Aleksandra Torbica, Maddalena Lettino, Steffen E Petersen, Elias A Mossialos, Aldo P Maggioni, Dzianis Kazakiewicz, Heidi T May, Delphine De Smedt, Marcus Flather, Liesl Zuhlke, John F Beltrame, Radu Huculeci, Luigi Tavazzi, Gerhard Hindricks, Jeroen Bax, Barbara Casadei, Stephan Achenbach, Lucy Wright, Panos Vardas, and Marcus Flather. 2020. “European Society of Cardiology : Cardiovascular Disease Statistics 2019.” EUROPEAN HEART JOURNAL 41 (1): 12–85.
Vancouver
1.
Timmis A, Townsend N, Gale CP, Torbica A, Lettino M, Petersen SE, et al. European Society of Cardiology : cardiovascular disease statistics 2019. EUROPEAN HEART JOURNAL. 2020;41(1):12–85.
IEEE
[1]
A. Timmis et al., “European Society of Cardiology : cardiovascular disease statistics 2019,” EUROPEAN HEART JOURNAL, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 12–85, 2020.
@article{8655549,
  abstract     = {Aims: The 2019 report from the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Atlas provides a contemporary analysis of cardiovascular disease (CVD) statistics across 56 member countries, with particular emphasis on international inequalities in disease burden and healthcare delivery together with estimates of progress towards meeting 2025 World Health Organization (WHO) non-communicable disease targets. 
Methods and results: In this report, contemporary CVD statistics are presented for member countries of the ESC. The statistics are drawn from the ESC Atlas which is a repository of CVD data from a variety of sources including the WHO, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, and the World Bank. The Atlas also includes novel ESC sponsored data on human and capital infrastructure and cardiovascular healthcare delivery obtained by annual survey of the national societies of ESC member countries. Across ESC member countries, the prevalence of obesity (body mass index >= 30 kg/m(2)) and diabetes has increased two- to three-fold during the last 30years making the WHO 2025 target to halt rises in these risk factors unlikely to be achieved. More encouraging have been variable declines in hypertension, smoking, and alcohol consumption but on current trends only the reduction in smoking from 28% to 21% during the last 20years appears sufficient for the WHO target to be achieved. The median age-standardized prevalence of major risk factors was higher in middle-income compared with high-income ESC member countries for hypertension {23.8% [interquartile range (IQR) 22.5-23.1%] vs. 15.7% (IQR 14.5-21.1%)}, diabetes [7.7% (IQR 7.1-10.1%) vs. 5.6% (IQR 4.8-7.0%)], and among males smoking [43.8% (IQR 37.4-48.0%) vs. 26.0% (IQR 20.9-31.7%)] although among females smoking was less common in middle-income countries [8.7% (IQR 3.0-10.8) vs. 16.7% (IQR 13.9-19.7%)]. There were associated inequalities in disease burden with disability-adjusted life years per 100 000 people due to CVD over three times as high in middle-income [7160 (IQR 5655-8115)] compared with high-income [2235 (IQR 1896-3602)] countries. Cardiovascular disease mortality was also higher in middle-income countries where it accounted for a greater proportion of potential years of life lost compared with high-income countries in both females (43% vs. 28%) and males (39% vs. 28%). Despite the inequalities in disease burden across ESC member countries, survey data from the National Cardiac Societies of the ESC showed that middle-income member countries remain severely under-resourced compared with high-income countries in terms of cardiological person-power and technological infrastructure. Under-resourcing in middle-income countries is associated with a severe procedural deficit compared with high-income countries in terms of coronary intervention, device implantation and cardiac surgical procedures. 
Conclusion: A seemingly inexorable rise in the prevalence of obesity and diabetes currently provides the greatest challenge to achieving further reductions in CVD burden across ESC member countries. Additional challenges are provided by inequalities in disease burden that now require intensification of policy initiatives in order to reduce population risk and prioritize cardiovascular healthcare delivery, particularly in the middle-income countries of the ESC where need is greatest.},
  author       = {Timmis, Adam and Townsend, Nick and Gale, Chris P and Torbica, Aleksandra and Lettino, Maddalena and Petersen, Steffen E and Mossialos, Elias A and Maggioni, Aldo P and Kazakiewicz, Dzianis and May, Heidi T and De Smedt, Delphine and Flather, Marcus and Zuhlke, Liesl and Beltrame, John F and Huculeci, Radu and Tavazzi, Luigi and Hindricks, Gerhard and Bax, Jeroen and Casadei, Barbara and Achenbach, Stephan and Wright, Lucy and Vardas, Panos and Flather, Marcus},
  issn         = {0195-668X},
  journal      = {EUROPEAN HEART JOURNAL},
  keywords     = {Cardiovascular disease,Statistics,European Society of Cardiology,Health infrastructure,Service provision,Risk factors,Mortality,Morbidity,ACUTE MYOCARDIAL-INFARCTION,CORONARY-HEART-DISEASE,ALL-CAUSE MORTALITY,BLOOD-PRESSURE,GLOBAL BURDEN,ECONOMIC BURDEN,INDIVIDUAL DATA,NONCOMMUNICABLE DISEASES,PHYSICAL INACTIVITY,SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {12--85},
  title        = {European Society of Cardiology : cardiovascular disease statistics 2019},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehz859},
  volume       = {41},
  year         = {2020},
}

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