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The child’s right to protection against economic exploitation in the digital world

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Abstract
Children face significant consumer risks when surfing online, related to, inter alio, embedded advertisements and privacy-invasive practices, as well as the exploitation of their incredulity and inexperience resulting in overspending or online fraudulent transactions. Behind the fun and playful activities available for children online lie complex revenue models, creating value for companies by feeding children's data into algorithms and self-learning models to profile them and offer personalised advertising or by nudging children to buy or try to win in-app items to advance in the games they play. In this article we argue that specific measures against these forms of economic exploitation of children in the digital world are urgently needed. We focus on three types of exploitative practices that may have a significant impact on the well-being and rights of children - profiling and automated decision-making, commercialisation of play, and digital child labour. For each type, we explain what the practice entails, situate the practice within the existing legislative and children's rights framework and identify concerns in relation to those rights.
Keywords
children's rights, commercial exploitation, child labour, GDPR, privacy, data protection, economic exploitation, children, UNCRC, IMPACT ASSESSMENT

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MLA
van der Hof, Simone, et al. “The Child’s Right to Protection against Economic Exploitation in the Digital World.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CHILDRENS RIGHTS, vol. 28, no. 4, 2020, pp. 833–59, doi:10.1163/15718182-28040003.
APA
van der Hof, S., Lievens, E., Milkaite, I., Verdoodt, V., Hannema, T., & Liefaard, T. (2020). The child’s right to protection against economic exploitation in the digital world. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CHILDRENS RIGHTS, 28(4), 833–859. https://doi.org/10.1163/15718182-28040003
Chicago author-date
Hof, Simone van der, Eva Lievens, Ingrida Milkaite, Valerie Verdoodt, Thijs Hannema, and Ton Liefaard. 2020. “The Child’s Right to Protection against Economic Exploitation in the Digital World.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CHILDRENS RIGHTS 28 (4): 833–59. https://doi.org/10.1163/15718182-28040003.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
van der Hof, Simone, Eva Lievens, Ingrida Milkaite, Valerie Verdoodt, Thijs Hannema, and Ton Liefaard. 2020. “The Child’s Right to Protection against Economic Exploitation in the Digital World.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CHILDRENS RIGHTS 28 (4): 833–859. doi:10.1163/15718182-28040003.
Vancouver
1.
van der Hof S, Lievens E, Milkaite I, Verdoodt V, Hannema T, Liefaard T. The child’s right to protection against economic exploitation in the digital world. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CHILDRENS RIGHTS. 2020;28(4):833–59.
IEEE
[1]
S. van der Hof, E. Lievens, I. Milkaite, V. Verdoodt, T. Hannema, and T. Liefaard, “The child’s right to protection against economic exploitation in the digital world,” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CHILDRENS RIGHTS, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 833–859, 2020.
@article{8655354,
  abstract     = {Children face significant consumer risks when surfing online, related to, inter alio, embedded advertisements and privacy-invasive practices, as well as the exploitation of their incredulity and inexperience resulting in overspending or online fraudulent transactions. Behind the fun and playful activities available for children online lie complex revenue models, creating value for companies by feeding children's data into algorithms and self-learning models to profile them and offer personalised advertising or by nudging children to buy or try to win in-app items to advance in the games they play. In this article we argue that specific measures against these forms of economic exploitation of children in the digital world are urgently needed. We focus on three types of exploitative practices that may have a significant impact on the well-being and rights of children - profiling and automated decision-making, commercialisation of play, and digital child labour. For each type, we explain what the practice entails, situate the practice within the existing legislative and children's rights framework and identify concerns in relation to those rights.},
  author       = {van der Hof, Simone and Lievens, Eva and Milkaite, Ingrida and Verdoodt, Valerie and Hannema, Thijs and Liefaard, Ton},
  issn         = {0927-5568},
  journal      = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CHILDRENS RIGHTS},
  keywords     = {children's rights,commercial exploitation,child labour,GDPR,privacy,data protection,economic exploitation,children,UNCRC,IMPACT ASSESSMENT},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {833--859},
  title        = {The child’s right to protection against economic exploitation in the digital world},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/15718182-28040003},
  volume       = {28},
  year         = {2020},
}

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