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Thermal, mechanical and electrical stimuli in antinociceptive studies in standing horses: an update

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Abstract
Objective To perform a literature review of the thermal and mechanical antinociceptive devices used in pharmacological studies in standing horses published after 2011 (2012-2019). To complete a full literature review about electrical stimulation used for evaluation in similar studies. Databases used PubMed, Google Scholar and Web of Science. Conclusions A high level of standardization has been reached in antinociceptive studies in standing horses using thermal and mechanical stimuli in most recent years. Commercially available testing devices to deliver thermal, mechanical and electrical stimuli, with observation of aversive responses to these stimuli, are reliable, sensitive and specific. For electrical stimulus testing, there is evidence that the resistance between the electrodes should be measured and should not exceed 3 k Omega to guarantee consistent and reproducible stimuli. The specific analysis of electromyographic activity after an electrical stimulus provides more detailed information about the neurons stimulated.

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MLA
Gozalo-Marcilla, Miguel, et al. “Thermal, Mechanical and Electrical Stimuli in Antinociceptive Studies in Standing Horses: An Update.” VETERINARY ANAESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, vol. 47, no. 1, 2020, pp. 15–27.
APA
Gozalo-Marcilla, M., Loureiro Luna, S. P., Gasthuys, F., & Schauvliege, S. (2020). Thermal, mechanical and electrical stimuli in antinociceptive studies in standing horses: an update. VETERINARY ANAESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 47(1), 15–27.
Chicago author-date
Gozalo-Marcilla, Miguel, Stelio Pacca Loureiro Luna, Frank Gasthuys, and Stijn Schauvliege. 2020. “Thermal, Mechanical and Electrical Stimuli in Antinociceptive Studies in Standing Horses: An Update.” VETERINARY ANAESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA 47 (1): 15–27.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Gozalo-Marcilla, Miguel, Stelio Pacca Loureiro Luna, Frank Gasthuys, and Stijn Schauvliege. 2020. “Thermal, Mechanical and Electrical Stimuli in Antinociceptive Studies in Standing Horses: An Update.” VETERINARY ANAESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA 47 (1): 15–27.
Vancouver
1.
Gozalo-Marcilla M, Loureiro Luna SP, Gasthuys F, Schauvliege S. Thermal, mechanical and electrical stimuli in antinociceptive studies in standing horses: an update. VETERINARY ANAESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA. 2020;47(1):15–27.
IEEE
[1]
M. Gozalo-Marcilla, S. P. Loureiro Luna, F. Gasthuys, and S. Schauvliege, “Thermal, mechanical and electrical stimuli in antinociceptive studies in standing horses: an update,” VETERINARY ANAESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 15–27, 2020.
@article{8654334,
  abstract     = {Objective To perform a literature review of the thermal and mechanical antinociceptive devices used in pharmacological studies in standing horses published after 2011 (2012-2019). To complete a full literature review about electrical stimulation used for evaluation in similar studies. Databases used PubMed, Google Scholar and Web of Science. Conclusions A high level of standardization has been reached in antinociceptive studies in standing horses using thermal and mechanical stimuli in most recent years. Commercially available testing devices to deliver thermal, mechanical and electrical stimuli, with observation of aversive responses to these stimuli, are reliable, sensitive and specific. For electrical stimulus testing, there is evidence that the resistance between the electrodes should be measured and should not exceed 3 k Omega to guarantee consistent and reproducible stimuli. The specific analysis of electromyographic activity after an electrical stimulus provides more detailed information about the neurons stimulated.},
  author       = {Gozalo-Marcilla, Miguel and Loureiro Luna, Stelio Pacca and Gasthuys, Frank and Schauvliege, Stijn},
  issn         = {1467-2987},
  journal      = {VETERINARY ANAESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {15--27},
  title        = {Thermal, mechanical and electrical stimuli in antinociceptive studies in standing horses: an update},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaa.2019.09.003},
  volume       = {47},
  year         = {2020},
}

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