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Biomechanical comparison of Thiel embalmed and fresh frozen nerve tissue

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Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Thiel embalming on the biomechanical properties of nerve tissue, to validate the use of Thiel embalmed bodies as a reliable model system for obtaining biomechanical data to supplement neurodynamic models, for anesthesiological and neurosurgical training and for future preclinical test set-ups involving nerve tissue. Upon the arrival of a body at the anatomy department, a fresh median nerve was harvested, the harvest site was sutured and following the Thiel embalming procedure the Thiel embalmed median nerve of the opposing wrist was harvested. Micro CT was performed to establish the cross-sectional area and biomechanical tensile testing was performed to compare the Young's modulus/elasticity of fresh frozen and Thiel embalmed nerves. Thiel embalming did not cause a significant difference in elasticity when comparing Thiel embalmed and fresh frozen specimens. A correlation was found between the cross-sectional area of Thiel embalmed nerve specimens and their Young's modulus. Thiel embalming does not significantly alter the elasticity of nerve tissue compared to fresh frozen nerve tissue. Similar shapes were observed when comparing the stress/strain curves of both specimen types. This indicates that Thiel embalmed nerve tissue is a viable alternative for using fresh frozen specimens when investigating biomechanical principles/mechanisms. Some specimens showed a reversed trend in Young's modulus that could be related to slight differences in embalming outcome, so caution is advised when Thiel embalmed specimens are used to obtain raw numerical data for direct application in the clinic.
Keywords
Biomechanical tensile testing, Elasticity, Fresh frozen, Nerve tissue, Thiel embalming, MECHANICAL-PROPERTIES, PERIPHERAL-NERVE, STRAIN, MODEL, PRESERVATION, CADAVER, STRETCH

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MLA
Stouthandel, Michael, et al. “Biomechanical Comparison of Thiel Embalmed and Fresh Frozen Nerve Tissue.” ANATOMICAL SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, vol. 95, no. 3, 2020, pp. 390–407, doi:10.1007/s12565-020-00535-1.
APA
Stouthandel, M., Vanhove, C., Devriendt, W., De Bock, S., Debbaut, C., Vangestel, C., & Van Hoof, T. (2020). Biomechanical comparison of Thiel embalmed and fresh frozen nerve tissue. ANATOMICAL SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, 95(3), 390–407. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12565-020-00535-1
Chicago author-date
Stouthandel, Michael, Christian Vanhove, Wouter Devriendt, Sander De Bock, Charlotte Debbaut, Carl Vangestel, and Tom Van Hoof. 2020. “Biomechanical Comparison of Thiel Embalmed and Fresh Frozen Nerve Tissue.” ANATOMICAL SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL 95 (3): 390–407. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12565-020-00535-1.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Stouthandel, Michael, Christian Vanhove, Wouter Devriendt, Sander De Bock, Charlotte Debbaut, Carl Vangestel, and Tom Van Hoof. 2020. “Biomechanical Comparison of Thiel Embalmed and Fresh Frozen Nerve Tissue.” ANATOMICAL SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL 95 (3): 390–407. doi:10.1007/s12565-020-00535-1.
Vancouver
1.
Stouthandel M, Vanhove C, Devriendt W, De Bock S, Debbaut C, Vangestel C, et al. Biomechanical comparison of Thiel embalmed and fresh frozen nerve tissue. ANATOMICAL SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL. 2020;95(3):390–407.
IEEE
[1]
M. Stouthandel et al., “Biomechanical comparison of Thiel embalmed and fresh frozen nerve tissue,” ANATOMICAL SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, vol. 95, no. 3, pp. 390–407, 2020.
@article{8653201,
  abstract     = {{The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Thiel embalming on the biomechanical properties of nerve tissue, to validate the use of Thiel embalmed bodies as a reliable model system for obtaining biomechanical data to supplement neurodynamic models, for anesthesiological and neurosurgical training and for future preclinical test set-ups involving nerve tissue. Upon the arrival of a body at the anatomy department, a fresh median nerve was harvested, the harvest site was sutured and following the Thiel embalming procedure the Thiel embalmed median nerve of the opposing wrist was harvested. Micro CT was performed to establish the cross-sectional area and biomechanical tensile testing was performed to compare the Young's modulus/elasticity of fresh frozen and Thiel embalmed nerves. Thiel embalming did not cause a significant difference in elasticity when comparing Thiel embalmed and fresh frozen specimens. A correlation was found between the cross-sectional area of Thiel embalmed nerve specimens and their Young's modulus. Thiel embalming does not significantly alter the elasticity of nerve tissue compared to fresh frozen nerve tissue. Similar shapes were observed when comparing the stress/strain curves of both specimen types. This indicates that Thiel embalmed nerve tissue is a viable alternative for using fresh frozen specimens when investigating biomechanical principles/mechanisms. Some specimens showed a reversed trend in Young's modulus that could be related to slight differences in embalming outcome, so caution is advised when Thiel embalmed specimens are used to obtain raw numerical data for direct application in the clinic.}},
  author       = {{Stouthandel, Michael and Vanhove, Christian and Devriendt, Wouter and De Bock, Sander and Debbaut, Charlotte and Vangestel, Carl and Van Hoof, Tom}},
  issn         = {{1447-6959}},
  journal      = {{ANATOMICAL SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL}},
  keywords     = {{Biomechanical tensile testing,Elasticity,Fresh frozen,Nerve tissue,Thiel embalming,MECHANICAL-PROPERTIES,PERIPHERAL-NERVE,STRAIN,MODEL,PRESERVATION,CADAVER,STRETCH}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{3}},
  pages        = {{390--407}},
  title        = {{Biomechanical comparison of Thiel embalmed and fresh frozen nerve tissue}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12565-020-00535-1}},
  volume       = {{95}},
  year         = {{2020}},
}

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