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General health and residential proximity to the coast in Belgium : results from a cross-sectional health survey

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Abstract
The health risks of coastal areas have long been researched, but the potential benefits for health are only recently being explored. The present study compared the general health of Belgian citizens a) according to the EU's definition of coastal ( < 50 km) vs. inland ( > 50 km), and b) between eight more refined categories of residential proximity to the coast ( < 5 km to > 250 km). Data was drawn from the Belgian Health Interview Survey (n = 60,939) and investigated using linear regression models and mediation analyses on several hypothesized mechanisms. Results indicated that populations living < 5 km of the coast reported better general health than populations living at > 50-100 km. Four commonly hypothesized mechanisms were considered but no indirect associations were found: scores for mental health, physical activity levels and social contacts were not higher at 0-5 km from the coast, and air pollution (PM ic , concentrations) was lower at 0-5 km from the coast but not statistically associated with better health. Results are controlled for typical variables such as age, sex, income, neighbourhood levels of green and freshwater blue space, etc. The spatial urban-rural-nature mosaic at the Belgian coast and alternative explanations are discussed. The positive associations between the ocean and human health observed in this study encourage policy makers to manage coastal areas sustainably to maintain associated public health benefits into the future.
Keywords
Blue space, Mental health, Physical activity, Social interactions, Air pollution, RECREATIONAL PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY, LONG-TERM EXPOSURE, BLUE SPACE, NATURAL ENVIRONMENTS, PARTICULATE MATTER, PUBLIC AQUARIUMS, MENTAL-HEALTH, GREEN SPACE, URBAN GREEN, MARINE

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MLA
Hooyberg, Alexander, et al. “General Health and Residential Proximity to the Coast in Belgium : Results from a Cross-Sectional Health Survey.” ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH, vol. 184, 2020, doi:10.1016/j.envres.2020.109225.
APA
Hooyberg, A., Roose, H., Grellier, J., Elliott, L. R., Lonneville, B., White, M. P., … Everaert, G. (2020). General health and residential proximity to the coast in Belgium : results from a cross-sectional health survey. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH, 184. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.109225
Chicago author-date
Hooyberg, Alexander, Henk Roose, James Grellier, Lewis R Elliott, Britt Lonneville, Mathew P White, Nathalie Michels, Stefaan De Henauw, Michiel Vandegehuchte, and Gert Everaert. 2020. “General Health and Residential Proximity to the Coast in Belgium : Results from a Cross-Sectional Health Survey.” ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH 184. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.109225.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Hooyberg, Alexander, Henk Roose, James Grellier, Lewis R Elliott, Britt Lonneville, Mathew P White, Nathalie Michels, Stefaan De Henauw, Michiel Vandegehuchte, and Gert Everaert. 2020. “General Health and Residential Proximity to the Coast in Belgium : Results from a Cross-Sectional Health Survey.” ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH 184. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2020.109225.
Vancouver
1.
Hooyberg A, Roose H, Grellier J, Elliott LR, Lonneville B, White MP, et al. General health and residential proximity to the coast in Belgium : results from a cross-sectional health survey. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH. 2020;184.
IEEE
[1]
A. Hooyberg et al., “General health and residential proximity to the coast in Belgium : results from a cross-sectional health survey,” ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH, vol. 184, 2020.
@article{8652829,
  abstract     = {{The health risks of coastal areas have long been researched, but the potential benefits for health are only recently being explored. The present study compared the general health of Belgian citizens a) according to the EU's definition of coastal ( < 50 km) vs. inland ( > 50 km), and b) between eight more refined categories of residential proximity to the coast ( < 5 km to > 250 km). Data was drawn from the Belgian Health Interview Survey (n = 60,939) and investigated using linear regression models and mediation analyses on several hypothesized mechanisms. Results indicated that populations living < 5 km of the coast reported better general health than populations living at > 50-100 km. Four commonly hypothesized mechanisms were considered but no indirect associations were found: scores for mental health, physical activity levels and social contacts were not higher at 0-5 km from the coast, and air pollution (PM ic , concentrations) was lower at 0-5 km from the coast but not statistically associated with better health. Results are controlled for typical variables such as age, sex, income, neighbourhood levels of green and freshwater blue space, etc. The spatial urban-rural-nature mosaic at the Belgian coast and alternative explanations are discussed. The positive associations between the ocean and human health observed in this study encourage policy makers to manage coastal areas sustainably to maintain associated public health benefits into the future.}},
  articleno    = {{109225}},
  author       = {{Hooyberg, Alexander and Roose, Henk and Grellier, James and Elliott, Lewis R and Lonneville, Britt and White, Mathew P and Michels, Nathalie and De Henauw, Stefaan and Vandegehuchte, Michiel and Everaert, Gert}},
  issn         = {{0013-9351}},
  journal      = {{ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH}},
  keywords     = {{Blue space,Mental health,Physical activity,Social interactions,Air pollution,RECREATIONAL PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY,LONG-TERM EXPOSURE,BLUE SPACE,NATURAL ENVIRONMENTS,PARTICULATE MATTER,PUBLIC AQUARIUMS,MENTAL-HEALTH,GREEN SPACE,URBAN GREEN,MARINE}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{10}},
  title        = {{General health and residential proximity to the coast in Belgium : results from a cross-sectional health survey}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.109225}},
  volume       = {{184}},
  year         = {{2020}},
}

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