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Quantification of pesticide residues in the topsoil of Belgian fruit orchards : terrestrial environmental risk assessment

Gregor Claus (UGent) and Pieter Spanoghe (UGent)
(2020) PEST MANAGEMENT SCIENCE. 76(10). p.3495-3510
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Abstract
BACKGROUND Pesticides are widely used in fruit orchards. In the context of integrated pest management (IPM) Flemish farmers are advised to restrict the use of pesticides. However, pesticide residues could still pose a threat to beneficial organisms. To date, it is not well known which residues are present in IPM orchards. This study focuses on the pesticide concentration in the topsoil and the implications for soil-dwelling organisms. RESULTS Topsoil was sampled in ten sweet cherry (Prunus avium(L.) L.) and eight apple (Malus domesticaBorkh.) orchards in Flanders (Belgium), to quantify the concentration of pesticide residues. Topsoil was selected because it is a major exposure route for beneficials. Both pesticides from both current spraying schedules and those used previously were found. In addition, an environmental risk assessment was performed using species sensitivity distribution (SSD) and toxicity/exposure ratio (TER) approaches. The SSD approach led to a more conservative outcome. None of the pesticides in the spraying schedule revealed a risk, although some of the persistent and banned pesticides may continue to do so. CONCLUSION Spraying schedules are good predictors of environmental contamination. Monitoring of residues remains essential to determine the real residue concentration in the topsoil. SSDs proved valuable. It was inferred that in addition to the standard test with the earthwormEisenia fetida(Savigny, 1826), an arthropod test organism such asFolsomia candida(Willem, 1902) should be used in future risk assessments because it displays higher sensitivity towards insecticides.
Keywords
Agronomy and Crop Science, Insect Science, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, General Medicine, pesticide residues, environmental risk analysis, fruit orchards, beneficials, species sensitivity distribution, soil-dwelling organisms, SPECIES SENSITIVITY DISTRIBUTIONS, SOIL INVERTEBRATES, PEST-MANAGEMENT, APPLE

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Citation

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MLA
Claus, Gregor, and Pieter Spanoghe. “Quantification of Pesticide Residues in the Topsoil of Belgian Fruit Orchards : Terrestrial Environmental Risk Assessment.” PEST MANAGEMENT SCIENCE, vol. 76, no. 10, 2020, pp. 3495–510, doi:10.1002/ps.5811.
APA
Claus, G., & Spanoghe, P. (2020). Quantification of pesticide residues in the topsoil of Belgian fruit orchards : terrestrial environmental risk assessment. PEST MANAGEMENT SCIENCE, 76(10), 3495–3510. https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.5811
Chicago author-date
Claus, Gregor, and Pieter Spanoghe. 2020. “Quantification of Pesticide Residues in the Topsoil of Belgian Fruit Orchards : Terrestrial Environmental Risk Assessment.” PEST MANAGEMENT SCIENCE 76 (10): 3495–3510. https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.5811.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Claus, Gregor, and Pieter Spanoghe. 2020. “Quantification of Pesticide Residues in the Topsoil of Belgian Fruit Orchards : Terrestrial Environmental Risk Assessment.” PEST MANAGEMENT SCIENCE 76 (10): 3495–3510. doi:10.1002/ps.5811.
Vancouver
1.
Claus G, Spanoghe P. Quantification of pesticide residues in the topsoil of Belgian fruit orchards : terrestrial environmental risk assessment. PEST MANAGEMENT SCIENCE. 2020;76(10):3495–510.
IEEE
[1]
G. Claus and P. Spanoghe, “Quantification of pesticide residues in the topsoil of Belgian fruit orchards : terrestrial environmental risk assessment,” PEST MANAGEMENT SCIENCE, vol. 76, no. 10, pp. 3495–3510, 2020.
@article{8652412,
  abstract     = {BACKGROUND Pesticides are widely used in fruit orchards. In the context of integrated pest management (IPM) Flemish farmers are advised to restrict the use of pesticides. However, pesticide residues could still pose a threat to beneficial organisms. To date, it is not well known which residues are present in IPM orchards. This study focuses on the pesticide concentration in the topsoil and the implications for soil-dwelling organisms. RESULTS Topsoil was sampled in ten sweet cherry (Prunus avium(L.) L.) and eight apple (Malus domesticaBorkh.) orchards in Flanders (Belgium), to quantify the concentration of pesticide residues. Topsoil was selected because it is a major exposure route for beneficials. Both pesticides from both current spraying schedules and those used previously were found. In addition, an environmental risk assessment was performed using species sensitivity distribution (SSD) and toxicity/exposure ratio (TER) approaches. The SSD approach led to a more conservative outcome. None of the pesticides in the spraying schedule revealed a risk, although some of the persistent and banned pesticides may continue to do so. CONCLUSION Spraying schedules are good predictors of environmental contamination. Monitoring of residues remains essential to determine the real residue concentration in the topsoil. SSDs proved valuable. It was inferred that in addition to the standard test with the earthwormEisenia fetida(Savigny, 1826), an arthropod test organism such asFolsomia candida(Willem, 1902) should be used in future risk assessments because it displays higher sensitivity towards insecticides.},
  author       = {Claus, Gregor and Spanoghe, Pieter},
  issn         = {1526-498X},
  journal      = {PEST MANAGEMENT SCIENCE},
  keywords     = {Agronomy and Crop Science,Insect Science,Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology,General Medicine,pesticide residues,environmental risk analysis,fruit orchards,beneficials,species sensitivity distribution,soil-dwelling organisms,SPECIES SENSITIVITY DISTRIBUTIONS,SOIL INVERTEBRATES,PEST-MANAGEMENT,APPLE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {10},
  pages        = {3495--3510},
  title        = {Quantification of pesticide residues in the topsoil of Belgian fruit orchards : terrestrial environmental risk assessment},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.5811},
  volume       = {76},
  year         = {2020},
}

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