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Implicit learning in attractiveness evaluation : the role of conformity and analytical processing

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Abstract
We address the question how people's opinion and features of information interact in the process of indirect social influence. Implicit learning was considered as a mechanism for conformity in social perception. We carried out 2 experiments using a hidden covariation detection paradigm. In a learning phase, participants memorized a set of female photographs presented together with their attractiveness ratings. The ratings correlated with the hairstyle of the photographed women. The participants who did not consciously detect this correlation demonstrated a systematic bias toward the correlation when evaluating the new stimulus persons. Information about the source of the ratings in the learning phase (other people's opinions or nonsocial sources) did not modulate learning. Learning was not observed when participants critically evaluated the ratings during the memorization phase. The study shows that (a) conformity may be based not only on reinforcement learning mechanism (as was previously suggested) but also on unsupervised implicit learning; (b) implicit learning occurs automatically irrespective of the context (social or not); and (c) a critical attitude toward learned material may prevent implicit learning from being manifested in a test phase. We conclude that indirect social influence may be affected by people's opinion toward the provided information. The study contributes to both implicit learning and social perception research.
Keywords
implicit learning, face perception, facial attractiveness, conformity, decision strategy, HIDDEN COVARIATION DETECTION, SELF-PERPETUATING DEVELOPMENT, SOCIAL-INFLUENCE, FACES, PERFORMANCE, PERCEPTION, KNOWLEDGE, EXPOSURE, EXPLICIT, TASK

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MLA
Ivanchei, Ivan, et al. “Implicit Learning in Attractiveness Evaluation : The Role of Conformity and Analytical Processing.” JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-GENERAL, vol. 148, no. 9, 2019, pp. 1505–16.
APA
Ivanchei, I., Moroshkina, N., Tikhonov, R., & Ovchinnikova, I. (2019). Implicit learning in attractiveness evaluation : the role of conformity and analytical processing. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-GENERAL, 148(9), 1505–1516.
Chicago author-date
Ivanchei, Ivan, Nadezhda Moroshkina, Roman Tikhonov, and Irina Ovchinnikova. 2019. “Implicit Learning in Attractiveness Evaluation : The Role of Conformity and Analytical Processing.” JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-GENERAL 148 (9): 1505–16.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Ivanchei, Ivan, Nadezhda Moroshkina, Roman Tikhonov, and Irina Ovchinnikova. 2019. “Implicit Learning in Attractiveness Evaluation : The Role of Conformity and Analytical Processing.” JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-GENERAL 148 (9): 1505–1516.
Vancouver
1.
Ivanchei I, Moroshkina N, Tikhonov R, Ovchinnikova I. Implicit learning in attractiveness evaluation : the role of conformity and analytical processing. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-GENERAL. 2019;148(9):1505–16.
IEEE
[1]
I. Ivanchei, N. Moroshkina, R. Tikhonov, and I. Ovchinnikova, “Implicit learning in attractiveness evaluation : the role of conformity and analytical processing,” JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-GENERAL, vol. 148, no. 9, pp. 1505–1516, 2019.
@article{8651349,
  abstract     = {We address the question how people's opinion and features of information interact in the process of indirect social influence. Implicit learning was considered as a mechanism for conformity in social perception. We carried out 2 experiments using a hidden covariation detection paradigm. In a learning phase, participants memorized a set of female photographs presented together with their attractiveness ratings. The ratings correlated with the hairstyle of the photographed women. The participants who did not consciously detect this correlation demonstrated a systematic bias toward the correlation when evaluating the new stimulus persons. Information about the source of the ratings in the learning phase (other people's opinions or nonsocial sources) did not modulate learning. Learning was not observed when participants critically evaluated the ratings during the memorization phase. The study shows that (a) conformity may be based not only on reinforcement learning mechanism (as was previously suggested) but also on unsupervised implicit learning; (b) implicit learning occurs automatically irrespective of the context (social or not); and (c) a critical attitude toward learned material may prevent implicit learning from being manifested in a test phase. We conclude that indirect social influence may be affected by people's opinion toward the provided information. The study contributes to both implicit learning and social perception research.},
  author       = {Ivanchei, Ivan and Moroshkina, Nadezhda and Tikhonov, Roman and Ovchinnikova, Irina},
  issn         = {0096-3445},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-GENERAL},
  keywords     = {implicit learning,face perception,facial attractiveness,conformity,decision strategy,HIDDEN COVARIATION DETECTION,SELF-PERPETUATING DEVELOPMENT,SOCIAL-INFLUENCE,FACES,PERFORMANCE,PERCEPTION,KNOWLEDGE,EXPOSURE,EXPLICIT,TASK},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {9},
  pages        = {1505--1516},
  title        = {Implicit learning in attractiveness evaluation : the role of conformity and analytical processing},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000633},
  volume       = {148},
  year         = {2019},
}

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