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Compositional analyses of the associations between sedentary time, different intensities of physical activity, and cardiometabolic biomarkers among children and youth from the United States

(2019) PLOS ONE. 14(7).
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Abstract
Introduction : Compositional data analysis is one appropriate method for co-dependent data, even when data are collected for a subdivision of the 24-hour period, such as the waking day. Objectives were to use compositional analyses to examine the combined and relative associations of sedentary time (ST), light-intensity physical activity (LPA), moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA), and vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA) with cardiometabolic biomarkers in a representative sample of children and youth. Methods : This cross-sectional study included 2544 participants aged 6-17 years from the 2003-2006 United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. ST (<100 counts per minute), LPA (100 counts per minute to <4 METs; Freedson age-specific equation), MPA (4 to <7 METs), and VPA (>= 7 METs) were accelerometer-derived. Cardiometabolic biomarkers included waist circumference, body mass index (BMI) z-score, HDL-cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and blood pressure. Triglycerides, glucose, insulin, and LDL-cholesterol were measured in a fasting sub-sample of adolescents (n = 670). Compositional linear regression models were conducted. Results : The composition of ST, LPA, MPA, and VPA was significantly associated with BMI z-score, log waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol, and log plasma glucose (variance explained: 1-29%). Relative to the other three behaviors, VPA was negatively associated with BMI z-score (gamma VPA = -0.206, p = 0.005) and waist circumference (gamma VPA = -0.03, p = 0.001). Conversely, ST was positively associated with waist circumference (gamma ST = 0.029, p = 0.013). ST and VPA were also positively associated with diastolic blood pressure (gamma ST = 2.700, p = 0.018; gamma VPA = 1.246, p = 0.038), relative to the other behaviors, whereas negative associations were observed for LPA (gamma LPA = -2.892, p = 0.026). Finally, VPA was positively associated with HDL-cholesterol, relative to other behaviors (gamma VPA = 0.058, p<0.001). Conclusions : The ST and physical activity composition appears important for many aspects of cardiometabolic health in children and youth. Compositions with more time in higher-intensity activities may be better for some aspects of cardiometabolic health.
Keywords
SCHOOL-AGED CHILDREN, HEALTH INDICATORS, MOVEMENT BEHAVIORS, SLEEP DURATION, LIFE

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MLA
Carson, Valerie, et al. “Compositional Analyses of the Associations between Sedentary Time, Different Intensities of Physical Activity, and Cardiometabolic Biomarkers among Children and Youth from the United States.” PLOS ONE, vol. 14, no. 7, 2019.
APA
Carson, V., Tremblay, M., Chaput, J.-P., McGregor, D., & Chastin, S. (2019). Compositional analyses of the associations between sedentary time, different intensities of physical activity, and cardiometabolic biomarkers among children and youth from the United States. PLOS ONE, 14(7).
Chicago author-date
Carson, Valerie, Mark Tremblay, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Duncan McGregor, and Sebastien Chastin. 2019. “Compositional Analyses of the Associations between Sedentary Time, Different Intensities of Physical Activity, and Cardiometabolic Biomarkers among Children and Youth from the United States.” PLOS ONE 14 (7).
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Carson, Valerie, Mark Tremblay, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Duncan McGregor, and Sebastien Chastin. 2019. “Compositional Analyses of the Associations between Sedentary Time, Different Intensities of Physical Activity, and Cardiometabolic Biomarkers among Children and Youth from the United States.” PLOS ONE 14 (7).
Vancouver
1.
Carson V, Tremblay M, Chaput J-P, McGregor D, Chastin S. Compositional analyses of the associations between sedentary time, different intensities of physical activity, and cardiometabolic biomarkers among children and youth from the United States. PLOS ONE. 2019;14(7).
IEEE
[1]
V. Carson, M. Tremblay, J.-P. Chaput, D. McGregor, and S. Chastin, “Compositional analyses of the associations between sedentary time, different intensities of physical activity, and cardiometabolic biomarkers among children and youth from the United States,” PLOS ONE, vol. 14, no. 7, 2019.
@article{8650783,
  abstract     = {Introduction : Compositional data analysis is one appropriate method for co-dependent data, even when data are collected for a subdivision of the 24-hour period, such as the waking day. Objectives were to use compositional analyses to examine the combined and relative associations of sedentary time (ST), light-intensity physical activity (LPA), moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA), and vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA) with cardiometabolic biomarkers in a representative sample of children and youth. 
Methods : This cross-sectional study included 2544 participants aged 6-17 years from the 2003-2006 United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. ST (<100 counts per minute), LPA (100 counts per minute to <4 METs; Freedson age-specific equation), MPA (4 to <7 METs), and VPA (>= 7 METs) were accelerometer-derived. Cardiometabolic biomarkers included waist circumference, body mass index (BMI) z-score, HDL-cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and blood pressure. Triglycerides, glucose, insulin, and LDL-cholesterol were measured in a fasting sub-sample of adolescents (n = 670). Compositional linear regression models were conducted. 
Results : The composition of ST, LPA, MPA, and VPA was significantly associated with BMI z-score, log waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol, and log plasma glucose (variance explained: 1-29%). Relative to the other three behaviors, VPA was negatively associated with BMI z-score (gamma VPA = -0.206, p = 0.005) and waist circumference (gamma VPA = -0.03, p = 0.001). Conversely, ST was positively associated with waist circumference (gamma ST = 0.029, p = 0.013). ST and VPA were also positively associated with diastolic blood pressure (gamma ST = 2.700, p = 0.018; gamma VPA = 1.246, p = 0.038), relative to the other behaviors, whereas negative associations were observed for LPA (gamma LPA = -2.892, p = 0.026). Finally, VPA was positively associated with HDL-cholesterol, relative to other behaviors (gamma VPA = 0.058, p<0.001). 
Conclusions : The ST and physical activity composition appears important for many aspects of cardiometabolic health in children and youth. Compositions with more time in higher-intensity activities may be better for some aspects of cardiometabolic health.},
  articleno    = {e0220009},
  author       = {Carson, Valerie and Tremblay, Mark and Chaput, Jean-Philippe and McGregor, Duncan and Chastin, Sebastien},
  issn         = {1932-6203},
  journal      = {PLOS ONE},
  keywords     = {SCHOOL-AGED CHILDREN,HEALTH INDICATORS,MOVEMENT BEHAVIORS,SLEEP DURATION,LIFE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {7},
  pages        = {14},
  title        = {Compositional analyses of the associations between sedentary time, different intensities of physical activity, and cardiometabolic biomarkers among children and youth from the United States},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0220009},
  volume       = {14},
  year         = {2019},
}

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