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Developmental changes in the reward positivity : an electrophysiological trajectory of reward processing

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Abstract
Children and adolescents learn to regulate their behavior by utilizing feedback from the environment but exactly how this ability develops remains unclear. To investigate this question, we recorded the event-related brain potential (ERP) from children (8-13 years), adolescents (14-17 years) and young adults (18-23 years) while they navigated a "virtual maze" in pursuit of monetary rewards. The amplitude of the reward positivity, an ERP component elicited by feedback stimuli, was evaluated for each age group. A current theory suggests the reward positivity is produced by the impact of reinforcement learning signals carried by the midbrain dopamine system on anterior cingulate cortex, which utilizes the signals to learn and execute extended behaviors. We found that the three groups produced a reward positivity of comparable size despite relatively longer ERP component latencies for the children, suggesting that the reward processing system reaches maturity early in development. We propose that early development of the midbrain dopamine system facilitates the development of extended goal-directed behaviors in anterior cingulate cortex. 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.
Keywords
Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive control, Reinforcement learning, Development, Reward positivity, Anterior cingulate cortex, Dopamine, MEDIAL PREFRONTAL CORTEX, AGE-RELATED-CHANGES, ANTERIOR CINGULATE, INDIVIDUAL-DIFFERENCES, COGNITIVE CONTROL, BRAIN POTENTIALS, FEEDBACK, MOTIVATION, DOPAMINE, ADOLESCENCE

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MLA
Lukie, Carmen N., et al. “Developmental Changes in the Reward Positivity : An Electrophysiological Trajectory of Reward Processing.” DEVELOPMENTAL COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE, vol. 9, 2014, pp. 191–99.
APA
Lukie, C. N., Montazer-Hojat, S., & Holroyd, C. (2014). Developmental changes in the reward positivity : an electrophysiological trajectory of reward processing. DEVELOPMENTAL COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE, 9, 191–199.
Chicago author-date
Lukie, Carmen N., Somayyeh Montazer-Hojat, and Clay Holroyd. 2014. “Developmental Changes in the Reward Positivity : An Electrophysiological Trajectory of Reward Processing.” DEVELOPMENTAL COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE 9: 191–99.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Lukie, Carmen N., Somayyeh Montazer-Hojat, and Clay Holroyd. 2014. “Developmental Changes in the Reward Positivity : An Electrophysiological Trajectory of Reward Processing.” DEVELOPMENTAL COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE 9: 191–199.
Vancouver
1.
Lukie CN, Montazer-Hojat S, Holroyd C. Developmental changes in the reward positivity : an electrophysiological trajectory of reward processing. DEVELOPMENTAL COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE. 2014;9:191–9.
IEEE
[1]
C. N. Lukie, S. Montazer-Hojat, and C. Holroyd, “Developmental changes in the reward positivity : an electrophysiological trajectory of reward processing,” DEVELOPMENTAL COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE, vol. 9, pp. 191–199, 2014.
@article{8649916,
  abstract     = {Children and adolescents learn to regulate their behavior by utilizing feedback from the environment but exactly how this ability develops remains unclear. To investigate this question, we recorded the event-related brain potential (ERP) from children (8-13 years), adolescents (14-17 years) and young adults (18-23 years) while they navigated a "virtual maze" in pursuit of monetary rewards. The amplitude of the reward positivity, an ERP component elicited by feedback stimuli, was evaluated for each age group. A current theory suggests the reward positivity is produced by the impact of reinforcement learning signals carried by the midbrain dopamine system on anterior cingulate cortex, which utilizes the signals to learn and execute extended behaviors. We found that the three groups produced a reward positivity of comparable size despite relatively longer ERP component latencies for the children, suggesting that the reward processing system reaches maturity early in development. We propose that early development of the midbrain dopamine system facilitates the development of extended goal-directed behaviors in anterior cingulate cortex. 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.},
  author       = {Lukie, Carmen N. and Montazer-Hojat, Somayyeh and Holroyd, Clay},
  issn         = {1878-9293},
  journal      = {DEVELOPMENTAL COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE},
  keywords     = {Cognitive Neuroscience,Cognitive control,Reinforcement learning,Development,Reward positivity,Anterior cingulate cortex,Dopamine,MEDIAL PREFRONTAL CORTEX,AGE-RELATED-CHANGES,ANTERIOR CINGULATE,INDIVIDUAL-DIFFERENCES,COGNITIVE CONTROL,BRAIN POTENTIALS,FEEDBACK,MOTIVATION,DOPAMINE,ADOLESCENCE},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {191--199},
  title        = {Developmental changes in the reward positivity : an electrophysiological trajectory of reward processing},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dcn.2014.04.003},
  volume       = {9},
  year         = {2014},
}

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