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Abstract
Since 2007, the quality of Russula descriptions has improved and the use of molecular support for species delimitation and the number of published new species has increased. However, the description style is not consistent and has regional or author-specific patterns. Most recent publications still favour descriptions of spores compared to hymenium and pileipellis elements, and usually only the spore size is provided with statistical support. This study proposes standards for descriptions of the microscopic structure of Russula species (Russulaceae, Agaricomycetes). We present the description template, the template measurements table, the specific terminology and the essential chemical reagents. The proposed standards were tested by mycologists from 11 countries who met at the Russula Microscopy Workshop in Slovakia. Descriptions of 26 species from 9 countries and four continents were prepared, among them R. amarissima, R. castanopsidis, R. seperina and R. subtilis are re-described and 15 species are introduced as new: R. abietiphila, R. amerorecondita, R. aurantioflava, R. echidna, R. flavobrunnescens, R. fluvialis, R. fortunae, R. garyensis, R. gemmata, R. laevis, R. madrensis, R. olivaceohimalayensis, R. purpureogracilis, R. sancti-pauli and R. wielangtae. Seven descriptions for candidate new species are provided without a formal name assignment. Pairwise comparison of species described in this study with available similar descriptions of related species suggests that microscopic characters from all parts of the basidiomata can be equally important for species recognition and they deserve the same treatment including number of measurements and statistics. The majority of recent studies does not recognise differences between the pileus margin and centre, but more than one-third of the species described in this study show distinct differences between the pileus areas, emphasizing the importance to specify the origin of pileipellis observations. This study proved that there is frequently insufficient difference in the ITS barcode between closely related species and that it is necessary to use more genetic markers combined with ecological and geographical data.
Keywords
ECTOMYCORRHIZAL FUNGAL COMMUNITIES, PHYLOGENETIC CONTRIBUTIONS, SEQUENCE, ALIGNMENT, XERAMPELINA GROUP, DIVERSITY, BASIDIOMYCOTA, INFERENCE, DIVERSIFICATION, IDENTIFICATION, TAXONOMY, Morphology standards, New species, Phylogeny, Species delimitation, Taxonomy

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Citation

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MLA
Adamcik, Slavomir, et al. “The Quest for a Globally Comprehensible Russula Language.” FUNGAL DIVERSITY, vol. 99, no. 1, 2019, pp. 369–449.
APA
Adamcik, S., Looney, B., Cabon, M., Jancovicova, S., Adamcikova, K., Avis, P. G., … Buyck, B. (2019). The quest for a globally comprehensible Russula language. FUNGAL DIVERSITY, 99(1), 369–449.
Chicago author-date
Adamcik, Slavomir, Brian Looney, Miroslav Cabon, Sona Jancovicova, Katarina Adamcikova, Peter G Avis, Magdalena Barajas, et al. 2019. “The Quest for a Globally Comprehensible Russula Language.” FUNGAL DIVERSITY 99 (1): 369–449.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Adamcik, Slavomir, Brian Looney, Miroslav Cabon, Sona Jancovicova, Katarina Adamcikova, Peter G Avis, Magdalena Barajas, Rajendra P Bhatt, Adriana Corrales, Kanad Das, Felix Hampe, Aniket Ghosh, Genevieve Gates, Ville Kalviainen, Abdul Nasir Khalid, Munazza Kiran, Ruben De lange, Hyun Lee, Young Woon Lim, Alejandro Kong, Cathrin Manz, Clark Ovrebo, Malka Saba, Tero Taipale, Annemieke Verbeken, Komsit Wisitrassameewong, and Bart Buyck. 2019. “The Quest for a Globally Comprehensible Russula Language.” FUNGAL DIVERSITY 99 (1): 369–449.
Vancouver
1.
Adamcik S, Looney B, Cabon M, Jancovicova S, Adamcikova K, Avis PG, et al. The quest for a globally comprehensible Russula language. FUNGAL DIVERSITY. 2019;99(1):369–449.
IEEE
[1]
S. Adamcik et al., “The quest for a globally comprehensible Russula language,” FUNGAL DIVERSITY, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 369–449, 2019.
@article{8649654,
  abstract     = {Since 2007, the quality of Russula descriptions has improved and the use of molecular support for species delimitation and the number of published new species has increased. However, the description style is not consistent and has regional or author-specific patterns. Most recent publications still favour descriptions of spores compared to hymenium and pileipellis elements, and usually only the spore size is provided with statistical support. This study proposes standards for descriptions of the microscopic structure of Russula species (Russulaceae, Agaricomycetes). We present the description template, the template measurements table, the specific terminology and the essential chemical reagents. The proposed standards were tested by mycologists from 11 countries who met at the Russula Microscopy Workshop in Slovakia. Descriptions of 26 species from 9 countries and four continents were prepared, among them R. amarissima, R. castanopsidis, R. seperina and R. subtilis are re-described and 15 species are introduced as new: R. abietiphila, R. amerorecondita, R. aurantioflava, R. echidna, R. flavobrunnescens, R. fluvialis, R. fortunae, R. garyensis, R. gemmata, R. laevis, R. madrensis, R. olivaceohimalayensis, R. purpureogracilis, R. sancti-pauli and R. wielangtae. Seven descriptions for candidate new species are provided without a formal name assignment. Pairwise comparison of species described in this study with available similar descriptions of related species suggests that microscopic characters from all parts of the basidiomata can be equally important for species recognition and they deserve the same treatment including number of measurements and statistics. The majority of recent studies does not recognise differences between the pileus margin and centre, but more than one-third of the species described in this study show distinct differences between the pileus areas, emphasizing the importance to specify the origin of pileipellis observations. This study proved that there is frequently insufficient difference in the ITS barcode between closely related species and that it is necessary to use more genetic markers combined with ecological and geographical data.},
  author       = {Adamcik, Slavomir and Looney, Brian and Cabon, Miroslav and Jancovicova, Sona and Adamcikova, Katarina and Avis, Peter G and Barajas, Magdalena and Bhatt, Rajendra P and Corrales, Adriana and Das, Kanad and Hampe, Felix and Ghosh, Aniket and Gates, Genevieve and Kalviainen, Ville and Khalid, Abdul Nasir and Kiran, Munazza and De lange, Ruben and Lee, Hyun and Lim, Young Woon and Kong, Alejandro and Manz, Cathrin and Ovrebo, Clark and Saba, Malka and Taipale, Tero and Verbeken, Annemieke and Wisitrassameewong, Komsit and Buyck, Bart},
  issn         = {1560-2745},
  journal      = {FUNGAL DIVERSITY},
  keywords     = {ECTOMYCORRHIZAL FUNGAL COMMUNITIES,PHYLOGENETIC CONTRIBUTIONS,SEQUENCE,ALIGNMENT,XERAMPELINA GROUP,DIVERSITY,BASIDIOMYCOTA,INFERENCE,DIVERSIFICATION,IDENTIFICATION,TAXONOMY,Morphology standards,New species,Phylogeny,Species delimitation,Taxonomy},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {369--449},
  title        = {The quest for a globally comprehensible Russula language},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13225-019-00437-2},
  volume       = {99},
  year         = {2019},
}

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