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Changes of the glutathione redox system during the weaning transition in piglets, in relation to small intestinal morphology and barrier function

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Abstract
Background Weaning is known to result in barrier dysfunction and villus atrophy in the immediate post-weaning phase, and the magnitude of these responses is hypothesized to correlate with changes in the glutathione (GSH) redox system. Therefore, these parameters were simultaneously measured throughout the weaning phase, in piglets differing in birth weight category and weaning age, as these pre-weaning factors are important determinants for the weaning transition. Low birth weight (LBW) and normal birth weight (NBW) littermates were assigned to one of three weaning treatments; i.e. weaning at 3 weeks of age (3w), weaning at 4 weeks of age (4w) and removal from the sow at 3 d of age and fed a milk replacer until weaning at 3 weeks of age (3d3w). For each of these treatments, six LBW and six NBW piglets were euthanized at 0, 2, 5, 12 or 28 d post-weaning piglets, adding up 180 piglets. Results Weaning increased the glutathione peroxidase activity on d 5 post-weaning in plasma, and duodenal and jejunal mucosa. Small intestinal glutathione-S-transferase activity gradually increased until d 12 post-weaning, and this was combined with a progressive rise of mucosal GSH up till d 12 post-weaning. Oxidation of the GSH redox status (GSH/GSSG E-h) was only observed in the small intestinal mucosa of 3d3w weaned piglets at d 5 post-weaning. These piglets also demonstrated increased fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FD4) and horseradish peroxidase fluxes in the duodenum and distal jejunum during the experiment, and specifically demonstrated increased FD4 fluxes at d 2 to d 5 post-weaning. On the other hand, profound villus atrophy was observed during the weaning transition for all weaning treatments. Finally, LBW and NBW piglets did not demonstrate notable differences in GSH redox status, small intestinal barrier function and histo-morphology throughout the experiment. Conclusion Although moderate changes in the GSH redox system were observed upon weaning, the GSH redox status remained at a steady state level in 3w and 4w weaned piglets and was therefore not associated with weaning induced villus atrophy. Conversely, 3d3w weaned piglets demonstrated GSH redox imbalance in the small intestinal mucosa, and this co-occurred with a temporal malfunction of their intestinal barrier function.
Keywords
Barrier function, Glutathione, Oxidative stress, Redox status, Small intestine, Weaned piglet, PERFORMANCE LIQUID-CHROMATOGRAPHY, N-ACETYL CYSTEINE, INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RESTRICTION, ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY, OXIDATIVE STRESS, MAJOR MICROBIOTA, CELLULAR REDOX, FEED-INTAKE, IN-VITRO, PERMEABILITY

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MLA
Degroote, Jeroen, et al. “Changes of the Glutathione Redox System during the Weaning Transition in Piglets, in Relation to Small Intestinal Morphology and Barrier Function.” JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCE AND BIOTECHNOLOGY, vol. 11, no. 1, 2020, doi:10.1186/s40104-020-00440-7.
APA
Degroote, J., Vergauwen, H., Wang, W., Van Ginneken, C., De Smet, S., & Michiels, J. (2020). Changes of the glutathione redox system during the weaning transition in piglets, in relation to small intestinal morphology and barrier function. JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCE AND BIOTECHNOLOGY, 11(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40104-020-00440-7
Chicago author-date
Degroote, Jeroen, Hans Vergauwen, Wei Wang, Chris Van Ginneken, Stefaan De Smet, and Joris Michiels. 2020. “Changes of the Glutathione Redox System during the Weaning Transition in Piglets, in Relation to Small Intestinal Morphology and Barrier Function.” JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCE AND BIOTECHNOLOGY 11 (1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40104-020-00440-7.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Degroote, Jeroen, Hans Vergauwen, Wei Wang, Chris Van Ginneken, Stefaan De Smet, and Joris Michiels. 2020. “Changes of the Glutathione Redox System during the Weaning Transition in Piglets, in Relation to Small Intestinal Morphology and Barrier Function.” JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCE AND BIOTECHNOLOGY 11 (1). doi:10.1186/s40104-020-00440-7.
Vancouver
1.
Degroote J, Vergauwen H, Wang W, Van Ginneken C, De Smet S, Michiels J. Changes of the glutathione redox system during the weaning transition in piglets, in relation to small intestinal morphology and barrier function. JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCE AND BIOTECHNOLOGY. 2020;11(1).
IEEE
[1]
J. Degroote, H. Vergauwen, W. Wang, C. Van Ginneken, S. De Smet, and J. Michiels, “Changes of the glutathione redox system during the weaning transition in piglets, in relation to small intestinal morphology and barrier function,” JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCE AND BIOTECHNOLOGY, vol. 11, no. 1, 2020.
@article{8649480,
  abstract     = {{Background Weaning is known to result in barrier dysfunction and villus atrophy in the immediate post-weaning phase, and the magnitude of these responses is hypothesized to correlate with changes in the glutathione (GSH) redox system. Therefore, these parameters were simultaneously measured throughout the weaning phase, in piglets differing in birth weight category and weaning age, as these pre-weaning factors are important determinants for the weaning transition. Low birth weight (LBW) and normal birth weight (NBW) littermates were assigned to one of three weaning treatments; i.e. weaning at 3 weeks of age (3w), weaning at 4 weeks of age (4w) and removal from the sow at 3 d of age and fed a milk replacer until weaning at 3 weeks of age (3d3w). For each of these treatments, six LBW and six NBW piglets were euthanized at 0, 2, 5, 12 or 28 d post-weaning piglets, adding up 180 piglets. Results Weaning increased the glutathione peroxidase activity on d 5 post-weaning in plasma, and duodenal and jejunal mucosa. Small intestinal glutathione-S-transferase activity gradually increased until d 12 post-weaning, and this was combined with a progressive rise of mucosal GSH up till d 12 post-weaning. Oxidation of the GSH redox status (GSH/GSSG E-h) was only observed in the small intestinal mucosa of 3d3w weaned piglets at d 5 post-weaning. These piglets also demonstrated increased fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FD4) and horseradish peroxidase fluxes in the duodenum and distal jejunum during the experiment, and specifically demonstrated increased FD4 fluxes at d 2 to d 5 post-weaning. On the other hand, profound villus atrophy was observed during the weaning transition for all weaning treatments. Finally, LBW and NBW piglets did not demonstrate notable differences in GSH redox status, small intestinal barrier function and histo-morphology throughout the experiment. Conclusion Although moderate changes in the GSH redox system were observed upon weaning, the GSH redox status remained at a steady state level in 3w and 4w weaned piglets and was therefore not associated with weaning induced villus atrophy. Conversely, 3d3w weaned piglets demonstrated GSH redox imbalance in the small intestinal mucosa, and this co-occurred with a temporal malfunction of their intestinal barrier function.}},
  articleno    = {{45}},
  author       = {{Degroote, Jeroen and Vergauwen, Hans and Wang, Wei and Van Ginneken, Chris and De Smet, Stefaan and Michiels, Joris}},
  issn         = {{2049-1891}},
  journal      = {{JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCE AND BIOTECHNOLOGY}},
  keywords     = {{Barrier function,Glutathione,Oxidative stress,Redox status,Small intestine,Weaned piglet,PERFORMANCE LIQUID-CHROMATOGRAPHY,N-ACETYL CYSTEINE,INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RESTRICTION,ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY,OXIDATIVE STRESS,MAJOR MICROBIOTA,CELLULAR REDOX,FEED-INTAKE,IN-VITRO,PERMEABILITY}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{1}},
  pages        = {{17}},
  title        = {{Changes of the glutathione redox system during the weaning transition in piglets, in relation to small intestinal morphology and barrier function}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40104-020-00440-7}},
  volume       = {{11}},
  year         = {{2020}},
}

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