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Differences in ultrasound-derived arterial wall stiffness parameters and noninvasive blood pressure between Friesian horses and Warmblood horses

Lisse Vera (UGent) , Dominique De Clercq (UGent) , Glenn Van Steenkiste (UGent) , Annelies Decloedt (UGent) , Koen Chiers (UGent) and Gunther van Loon (UGent)
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Abstract
Background: Aortic rupture is more common in Friesians compared to Warmbloods, which might be related to differences in arterial wall composition and, as such, arterial wall stiffness (AWS). Currently, nothing is known about differences in AWS between these breeds. Objectives: Comparison of AWS parameters and noninvasive blood pressure between Friesians and Warmbloods. Animals: One hundred one healthy Friesians and 101 age-matched healthy Warmbloods. Methods: Two-dimensional and pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasound examination was performed of the aorta, common carotid artery, and external iliac artery to define local and regional AWS parameters. Regional aortic AWS was estimated using aortic-to-external iliac artery pulse wave velocity (PWVa-e) and carotid-to-external iliac artery pulse wave velocity (PWVc-e). Noninvasive blood pressure and heart rate were recorded simultaneously. Results: Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure and pulse pressure were significantly higher in Friesians compared to Warmbloods. No significant difference in heart rate was found. Most local AWS parameters (diameter change, compliance coefficient, distensibility coefficient) were significantly lower in Friesians compared to Warmbloods, indicating a stiffer aorta in Friesians. This difference could be confirmed by the regional stiffness parameters. A higher PWVa-e and PWVc-e was found in Friesians. For the cranial and caudal common carotid artery and external iliac artery, most local AWS parameters were not significantly different. Conclusions and clinical importance: Results indicate that aortic AWS differs between Friesian and Warmblood horses. Friesians seem to have a stiffer aorta, which might be related to the higher incidence of aortic rupture in Friesians.
Keywords
PULSE-WAVE VELOCITY, EXPERT CONSENSUS DOCUMENT, THORACIC AORTIC RUPTURE, CARDIOVASCULAR MORTALITY, MECHANICAL-PROPERTIES, compliance coefficient, distensibility coefficient, pulse wave velocity, stiffness index

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MLA
Vera, Lisse, et al. “Differences in Ultrasound-Derived Arterial Wall Stiffness Parameters and Noninvasive Blood Pressure between Friesian Horses and Warmblood Horses.” JOURNAL OF VETERINARY INTERNAL MEDICINE, 2020.
APA
Vera, L., De Clercq, D., Van Steenkiste, G., Decloedt, A., Chiers, K., & van Loon, G. (2020). Differences in ultrasound-derived arterial wall stiffness parameters and noninvasive blood pressure between Friesian horses and Warmblood horses. JOURNAL OF VETERINARY INTERNAL MEDICINE.
Chicago author-date
Vera, Lisse, Dominique De Clercq, Glenn Van Steenkiste, Annelies Decloedt, Koen Chiers, and Gunther van Loon. 2020. “Differences in Ultrasound-Derived Arterial Wall Stiffness Parameters and Noninvasive Blood Pressure between Friesian Horses and Warmblood Horses.” JOURNAL OF VETERINARY INTERNAL MEDICINE.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Vera, Lisse, Dominique De Clercq, Glenn Van Steenkiste, Annelies Decloedt, Koen Chiers, and Gunther van Loon. 2020. “Differences in Ultrasound-Derived Arterial Wall Stiffness Parameters and Noninvasive Blood Pressure between Friesian Horses and Warmblood Horses.” JOURNAL OF VETERINARY INTERNAL MEDICINE.
Vancouver
1.
Vera L, De Clercq D, Van Steenkiste G, Decloedt A, Chiers K, van Loon G. Differences in ultrasound-derived arterial wall stiffness parameters and noninvasive blood pressure between Friesian horses and Warmblood horses. JOURNAL OF VETERINARY INTERNAL MEDICINE. 2020;
IEEE
[1]
L. Vera, D. De Clercq, G. Van Steenkiste, A. Decloedt, K. Chiers, and G. van Loon, “Differences in ultrasound-derived arterial wall stiffness parameters and noninvasive blood pressure between Friesian horses and Warmblood horses,” JOURNAL OF VETERINARY INTERNAL MEDICINE, 2020.
@article{8648831,
  abstract     = {{Background: Aortic rupture is more common in Friesians compared to Warmbloods, which might be related to differences in arterial wall composition and, as such, arterial wall stiffness (AWS). Currently, nothing is known about differences in AWS between these breeds. 
Objectives: Comparison of AWS parameters and noninvasive blood pressure between Friesians and Warmbloods. 
Animals: One hundred one healthy Friesians and 101 age-matched healthy Warmbloods. 
Methods: Two-dimensional and pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasound examination was performed of the aorta, common carotid artery, and external iliac artery to define local and regional AWS parameters. Regional aortic AWS was estimated using aortic-to-external iliac artery pulse wave velocity (PWVa-e) and carotid-to-external iliac artery pulse wave velocity (PWVc-e). Noninvasive blood pressure and heart rate were recorded simultaneously. 
Results: Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure and pulse pressure were significantly higher in Friesians compared to Warmbloods. No significant difference in heart rate was found. Most local AWS parameters (diameter change, compliance coefficient, distensibility coefficient) were significantly lower in Friesians compared to Warmbloods, indicating a stiffer aorta in Friesians. This difference could be confirmed by the regional stiffness parameters. A higher PWVa-e and PWVc-e was found in Friesians. For the cranial and caudal common carotid artery and external iliac artery, most local AWS parameters were not significantly different. 
Conclusions and clinical importance: Results indicate that aortic AWS differs between Friesian and Warmblood horses. Friesians seem to have a stiffer aorta, which might be related to the higher incidence of aortic rupture in Friesians.}},
  author       = {{Vera, Lisse and De Clercq, Dominique and Van Steenkiste, Glenn and Decloedt, Annelies and Chiers, Koen and van Loon, Gunther}},
  issn         = {{0891-6640}},
  journal      = {{JOURNAL OF VETERINARY INTERNAL MEDICINE}},
  keywords     = {{PULSE-WAVE VELOCITY,EXPERT CONSENSUS DOCUMENT,THORACIC AORTIC RUPTURE,CARDIOVASCULAR MORTALITY,MECHANICAL-PROPERTIES,compliance coefficient,distensibility coefficient,pulse wave velocity,stiffness index}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  title        = {{Differences in ultrasound-derived arterial wall stiffness parameters and noninvasive blood pressure between Friesian horses and Warmblood horses}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvim.15705}},
  year         = {{2020}},
}

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