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Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as therapeutic allies of the gut microbiome on chronic inflammation

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Abstract
Our gut harbours around 1014bacteria of more than 1000 species, accounting for approximately 2 kg of biomass. Thegut microbiome plays several vital functions in processes such as the development of the immune system, food digestion and protection against pathogens. For these functions to be beneficial for both host and microbiome, interactions are tightly regulated.Gut and immune cells continuously interact to distinguish among commensal microbiota, harmless foodstuff, and pathogens. A fine balance between inflammatory and anti-inflammatory state is fundamental to protect intestinal homeostasis. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs) are a class of drugs used for management of pain and inflammation. These compounds have heterologous structures but similar therapeutic activities. The target of all NSAIDs are the isoforms of cyclooxygenase enzymes (COX): the primarily constitutive form COX-1, and the inducible from COX-2. Both isoforms catalyse the conversion of arachidonic acid to PGH2, the immediate substrate for specific prostaglandin and thromboxane synthesis. The gut microbiota plays a role in drug metabolism, resulting in altered bioavailability of these compounds. Additionally, complex host-microbiome interactions lead to modified xenobiotic metabolism and altered expression of genes involved in drug metabolism. These effects can be at gut tissue-level, or distant, including in the liver. Besides the gut microbiome influencing drug metabolism, drugs also impact the microbial communities in the gut. As different drugs exert selective pressures on the gut microbiome, understanding this bidirectional relationshipis crucial for developing effective therapies for managing chronic inflammation.
Keywords
gut microbiome, non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, inflammation, dysbiosis

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MLA
Mermans, Fabian, et al. “Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs as Therapeutic Allies of the Gut Microbiome on Chronic Inflammation.” FACTA UNIVERSITATIS. SERIES : MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY, vol. 21, no. 3, 2019, pp. 85–90.
APA
Mermans, F., Heiremans, E., Van Belleghem, M., Meersschaut, A., & Hernandez-Sanabria, E. (2019). Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as therapeutic allies of the gut microbiome on chronic inflammation. FACTA UNIVERSITATIS. SERIES : MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY, 21(3), 85–90.
Chicago author-date
Mermans, Fabian, Evelien Heiremans, Maud Van Belleghem, Axelle Meersschaut, and Emma Hernandez-Sanabria. 2019. “Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs as Therapeutic Allies of the Gut Microbiome on Chronic Inflammation.” FACTA UNIVERSITATIS. SERIES : MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY 21 (3): 85–90.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Mermans, Fabian, Evelien Heiremans, Maud Van Belleghem, Axelle Meersschaut, and Emma Hernandez-Sanabria. 2019. “Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs as Therapeutic Allies of the Gut Microbiome on Chronic Inflammation.” FACTA UNIVERSITATIS. SERIES : MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY 21 (3): 85–90.
Vancouver
1.
Mermans F, Heiremans E, Van Belleghem M, Meersschaut A, Hernandez-Sanabria E. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as therapeutic allies of the gut microbiome on chronic inflammation. FACTA UNIVERSITATIS SERIES : MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY. 2019;21(3):85–90.
IEEE
[1]
F. Mermans, E. Heiremans, M. Van Belleghem, A. Meersschaut, and E. Hernandez-Sanabria, “Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as therapeutic allies of the gut microbiome on chronic inflammation,” FACTA UNIVERSITATIS. SERIES : MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 85–90, 2019.
@article{8645596,
  abstract     = {{Our  gut  harbours  around  1014bacteria  of  more  than  1000  species,  accounting  for  approximately  2  kg  of biomass. Thegut microbiome plays several vital functions in processes such as the development of the immune system, food  digestion  and  protection  against  pathogens.  For  these  functions  to  be  beneficial  for  both  host  and  microbiome, interactions  are  tightly  regulated.Gut  and  immune  cells  continuously  interact  to  distinguish  among  commensal microbiota,  harmless  foodstuff,  and  pathogens.  A  fine  balance  between  inflammatory  and  anti-inflammatory  state  is fundamental to protect intestinal homeostasis. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs) are a class of drugs used for management of pain and inflammation. These compounds have heterologous structures but similar therapeutic activities. The target of all NSAIDs are the isoforms of cyclooxygenase enzymes (COX): the primarily constitutive form COX-1, and the inducible from COX-2. Both isoforms catalyse the conversion of arachidonic acid to PGH2, the immediate substrate for specific prostaglandin and thromboxane synthesis. The gut microbiota plays a role in drug metabolism,  resulting in altered  bioavailability  of  these  compounds.  Additionally,  complex  host-microbiome  interactions  lead  to  modified xenobiotic metabolism and altered expression of genes involved in drug metabolism. These effects can be at gut tissue-level, or distant, including in the liver. Besides the gut microbiome influencing drug metabolism, drugs also impact the microbial communities in the gut. As different drugs exert selective pressures on the gut microbiome,  understanding this bidirectional relationshipis crucial for developing effective therapies for managing chronic inflammation.}},
  author       = {{Mermans, Fabian and Heiremans, Evelien and Van Belleghem, Maud and Meersschaut, Axelle and Hernandez-Sanabria, Emma}},
  issn         = {{0354-2017}},
  journal      = {{FACTA UNIVERSITATIS. SERIES : MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY}},
  keywords     = {{gut microbiome,non-steroidal anti-inflammatories,inflammation,dysbiosis}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{3}},
  pages        = {{85--90}},
  title        = {{Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as therapeutic allies of the gut microbiome on chronic inflammation}},
  url          = {{http://casopisi.junis.ni.ac.rs/index.php/FUMedBiol/article/view/5996}},
  volume       = {{21}},
  year         = {{2019}},
}