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Acute apnea does not improve 3-km cycling time trial performance

Janne Bouten (UGent) , Alessandro Colosio (UGent) , Gil Bourgois (UGent) , Leen Lootens (UGent) , Peter Van Eenoo (UGent) , Jan Bourgois (UGent) and Jan Boone (UGent)
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Abstract
Purpose Intense exercise evokes a spleen contraction releasing red blood cells into blood circulation. The same mechanism is found after acute apnea, increasing hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]) by 2% to 5%. The aim of this study was twofold: [1] to identify the optimal apnea modalities to acutely increase [Hb] and [2] use these modalities to examine whether prerace apnea can improve a 3-km time trial (TT). Methods In part 1, 11 male subjects performed 12 different apnea protocols based on three modalities: mode, frequency, and intensity. Venous blood samples for [Hb] were collected before, immediately, and 5 min after each protocol. In part 2, 12 recreationally active subjects performed 3-km cycling TT in three different conditions: apnea, control, and placebo, after a 10-min warm-up. Power output, HR, and oxygen uptake (V & x2d9;O-2) were continuously measured. Venous [Hb] was sampled at baseline, after warm-up, and before TT. Additionally, these subjects performed constant cycling at Delta 25 (25% between gas exchange threshold and V & x2d9;O-2 max) in two conditions (control and apnea) to determine V & x2d9;O-2 kinetics. Results Although including one single apnea in the warming up evoked a positive change in [Hb] pattern (P = 0.049) and one single apnea seemed to improve V & x2d9;O-2 kinetics in constant submaximal cycling (tau: P = 0.060, mean response time: P = 0.064), performance during the 3-km TT did not differ between conditions (P = 0.840; apnea, 264.8 +/- 14.1 s; control, 263.9 +/- 12.9 s, placebo, 264.0 +/- 15.8 s). Average normalized power output (P = 0.584) and V & x2d9;O-2, HR, and lactate did not differ either (P > 0.05). Conclusions These results suggest that potential effects of apnea, that is, speeding of V & x2d9;O-2 kinetics through a transient increase in [Hb], are overruled by a warming-up protocol.
Keywords
BREATH HOLDING, SPLEEN CONTRACTION, HEMOGLOBIN, OXYGEN UPTAKE KINETICS, PERFORMANCE, O-2 UPTAKE KINETICS, SPLEEN VOLUME, WARM-UP, HEMOGLOBIN CONCENTRATION, EXERCISE, HYPEROXIA, CONTRACTION, HYPOXIA

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MLA
Bouten, Janne, et al. “Acute Apnea Does Not Improve 3-Km Cycling Time Trial Performance.” MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE, vol. 52, no. 5, 2020, pp. 1116–25, doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000002236.
APA
Bouten, J., Colosio, A., Bourgois, G., Lootens, L., Van Eenoo, P., Bourgois, J., & Boone, J. (2020). Acute apnea does not improve 3-km cycling time trial performance. MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE, 52(5), 1116–1125. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000002236
Chicago author-date
Bouten, Janne, Alessandro Colosio, Gil Bourgois, Leen Lootens, Peter Van Eenoo, Jan Bourgois, and Jan Boone. 2020. “Acute Apnea Does Not Improve 3-Km Cycling Time Trial Performance.” MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE 52 (5): 1116–25. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000002236.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Bouten, Janne, Alessandro Colosio, Gil Bourgois, Leen Lootens, Peter Van Eenoo, Jan Bourgois, and Jan Boone. 2020. “Acute Apnea Does Not Improve 3-Km Cycling Time Trial Performance.” MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE 52 (5): 1116–1125. doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000002236.
Vancouver
1.
Bouten J, Colosio A, Bourgois G, Lootens L, Van Eenoo P, Bourgois J, et al. Acute apnea does not improve 3-km cycling time trial performance. MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE. 2020;52(5):1116–25.
IEEE
[1]
J. Bouten et al., “Acute apnea does not improve 3-km cycling time trial performance,” MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 1116–1125, 2020.
@article{8645381,
  abstract     = {Purpose

Intense exercise evokes a spleen contraction releasing red blood cells into blood circulation. The same mechanism is found after acute apnea, increasing hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]) by 2% to 5%. The aim of this study was twofold: [1] to identify the optimal apnea modalities to acutely increase [Hb] and [2] use these modalities to examine whether prerace apnea can improve a 3-km time trial (TT). Methods

In part 1, 11 male subjects performed 12 different apnea protocols based on three modalities: mode, frequency, and intensity. Venous blood samples for [Hb] were collected before, immediately, and 5 min after each protocol. In part 2, 12 recreationally active subjects performed 3-km cycling TT in three different conditions: apnea, control, and placebo, after a 10-min warm-up. Power output, HR, and oxygen uptake (V & x2d9;O-2) were continuously measured. Venous [Hb] was sampled at baseline, after warm-up, and before TT. Additionally, these subjects performed constant cycling at Delta 25 (25% between gas exchange threshold and V & x2d9;O-2 max) in two conditions (control and apnea) to determine V & x2d9;O-2 kinetics. Results

Although including one single apnea in the warming up evoked a positive change in [Hb] pattern (P = 0.049) and one single apnea seemed to improve V & x2d9;O-2 kinetics in constant submaximal cycling (tau: P = 0.060, mean response time: P = 0.064), performance during the 3-km TT did not differ between conditions (P = 0.840; apnea, 264.8 +/- 14.1 s; control, 263.9 +/- 12.9 s, placebo, 264.0 +/- 15.8 s). Average normalized power output (P = 0.584) and V & x2d9;O-2, HR, and lactate did not differ either (P > 0.05). Conclusions

These results suggest that potential effects of apnea, that is, speeding of V & x2d9;O-2 kinetics through a transient increase in [Hb], are overruled by a warming-up protocol.},
  author       = {Bouten, Janne and Colosio, Alessandro and Bourgois, Gil and Lootens, Leen and Van Eenoo, Peter and Bourgois, Jan and Boone, Jan},
  issn         = {0195-9131},
  journal      = {MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE},
  keywords     = {BREATH HOLDING,SPLEEN CONTRACTION,HEMOGLOBIN,OXYGEN UPTAKE KINETICS,PERFORMANCE,O-2 UPTAKE KINETICS,SPLEEN VOLUME,WARM-UP,HEMOGLOBIN CONCENTRATION,EXERCISE,HYPEROXIA,CONTRACTION,HYPOXIA},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {5},
  pages        = {1116--1125},
  title        = {Acute apnea does not improve 3-km cycling time trial performance},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000002236},
  volume       = {52},
  year         = {2020},
}

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