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Asynchronous leaf and cambial phenology in a tree species of the Congo Basin requires space-time conversion of wood traits

(2019) ANNALS OF BOTANY. 124(2). p.245-253
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Organization
Abstract
Background and Aims: Wood traits are increasingly being used to document tree performance. In the Congo Basin, however, weaker seasonality causes asynchrony of wood traits between trees. Here, we monitor growth and phenology data to date the formation of traits. Methods: For two seasons, leaf and cambial phenology were monitored on four Terminalia superba trees (Mayombe) using cameras, cambial pinning and dendrometers. Subsequently, vessel lumen and parenchyma fractions as well as high-resolution isotopes (delta C-13/delta O-18) were quantified on the formed rings. All traits were dated and related to weather data. Key Results: We observed between-tree differences in green-up of 45 d, with trees flushing before and after the rainy season. The lag between green-up and onset of xylem formation was 59 +/- 21 d. The xylem growing season lasted 159 +/- 17 d with between-tree differences of up to 53 d. Synchronized vessel, parenchyma and d13C profiles were related to each other. Only parenchyma fraction and delta C-13 were correlated to weather variables, whereas the delta O-18 pattern showed no trend. Conclusions: Asynchrony of leaf and cambial phenology complicates correct interpretation of environmental information recorded in wood. An integrated approach including high-resolution measurements of growth, stable isotopes and anatomical features allows exact dating of the formation of traits. This methodology offers a means to explore the asynchrony of growth in a rainforest and contribute to understanding this aspect of forest resilience.
Keywords
Leaf phenology, cambial phenology, parenchyma, vessel lumen, cellulose stable isotopes, Congo Basin, Terminalia superba, DRY-FOREST, TROPICAL FORESTS, RING FORMATION, RADIAL GROWTH, WATER-USE, VARIABILITY, ANATOMY, DENSITY, PERIODICITY, PARENCHYMA

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Citation

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MLA
De Mil, Tom, et al. “Asynchronous Leaf and Cambial Phenology in a Tree Species of the Congo Basin Requires Space-Time Conversion of Wood Traits.” ANNALS OF BOTANY, vol. 124, no. 2, 2019, pp. 245–53.
APA
De Mil, T., Hubau, W., Angoboy Ilondea, B., Rocha Vargas, M. A., Boeckx, P., Steppe, K., … Van den Bulcke, J. (2019). Asynchronous leaf and cambial phenology in a tree species of the Congo Basin requires space-time conversion of wood traits. ANNALS OF BOTANY, 124(2), 245–253.
Chicago author-date
De Mil, Tom, Wannes Hubau, Bhely Angoboy Ilondea, Mirvia Angela Rocha Vargas, Pascal Boeckx, Kathy Steppe, Joris Van Acker, Hans Beeckman, and Jan Van den Bulcke. 2019. “Asynchronous Leaf and Cambial Phenology in a Tree Species of the Congo Basin Requires Space-Time Conversion of Wood Traits.” ANNALS OF BOTANY 124 (2): 245–53.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
De Mil, Tom, Wannes Hubau, Bhely Angoboy Ilondea, Mirvia Angela Rocha Vargas, Pascal Boeckx, Kathy Steppe, Joris Van Acker, Hans Beeckman, and Jan Van den Bulcke. 2019. “Asynchronous Leaf and Cambial Phenology in a Tree Species of the Congo Basin Requires Space-Time Conversion of Wood Traits.” ANNALS OF BOTANY 124 (2): 245–253.
Vancouver
1.
De Mil T, Hubau W, Angoboy Ilondea B, Rocha Vargas MA, Boeckx P, Steppe K, et al. Asynchronous leaf and cambial phenology in a tree species of the Congo Basin requires space-time conversion of wood traits. ANNALS OF BOTANY. 2019;124(2):245–53.
IEEE
[1]
T. De Mil et al., “Asynchronous leaf and cambial phenology in a tree species of the Congo Basin requires space-time conversion of wood traits,” ANNALS OF BOTANY, vol. 124, no. 2, pp. 245–253, 2019.
@article{8645200,
  abstract     = {Background and Aims: Wood traits are increasingly being used to document tree performance. In the Congo Basin, however, weaker seasonality causes asynchrony of wood traits between trees. Here, we monitor growth and phenology data to date the formation of traits. 
Methods: For two seasons, leaf and cambial phenology were monitored on four Terminalia superba trees (Mayombe) using cameras, cambial pinning and dendrometers. Subsequently, vessel lumen and parenchyma fractions as well as high-resolution isotopes (delta C-13/delta O-18) were quantified on the formed rings. All traits were dated and related to weather data. 
Key Results: We observed between-tree differences in green-up of 45 d, with trees flushing before and after the rainy season. The lag between green-up and onset of xylem formation was 59 +/- 21 d. The xylem growing season lasted 159 +/- 17 d with between-tree differences of up to 53 d. Synchronized vessel, parenchyma and d13C profiles were related to each other. Only parenchyma fraction and delta C-13 were correlated to weather variables, whereas the delta O-18 pattern showed no trend. 
Conclusions: Asynchrony of leaf and cambial phenology complicates correct interpretation of environmental information recorded in wood. An integrated approach including high-resolution measurements of growth, stable isotopes and anatomical features allows exact dating of the formation of traits. This methodology offers a means to explore the asynchrony of growth in a rainforest and contribute to understanding this aspect of forest resilience.},
  author       = {De Mil, Tom and Hubau, Wannes and Angoboy Ilondea, Bhely and Rocha Vargas, Mirvia Angela and Boeckx, Pascal and Steppe, Kathy and Van Acker, Joris and Beeckman, Hans and Van den Bulcke, Jan},
  issn         = {0305-7364},
  journal      = {ANNALS OF BOTANY},
  keywords     = {Leaf phenology,cambial phenology,parenchyma,vessel lumen,cellulose stable isotopes,Congo Basin,Terminalia superba,DRY-FOREST,TROPICAL FORESTS,RING FORMATION,RADIAL GROWTH,WATER-USE,VARIABILITY,ANATOMY,DENSITY,PERIODICITY,PARENCHYMA},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {245--253},
  title        = {Asynchronous leaf and cambial phenology in a tree species of the Congo Basin requires space-time conversion of wood traits},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcz069},
  volume       = {124},
  year         = {2019},
}

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