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Determination of the lead oxide fouling mechanisms in lead bismuth eutectic coolant

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Abstract
An increased interest in the use of liquid metals for novel energy conversion systems is present today. The Accelerator Driven System (ADS) called MYRRHA under design at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN) is an example of such an innovative system. The use of Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) as a coolant for this reactor implies that an accurate knowledge on the chemical properties of the coolant needs to be available. An important factor is the risk of coolant oxidation due to oxygen ingress in the system. Although the formation of lead oxide (PbO) is well understood, the deposition mechanism and kinetics are not yet studied. In this work the deposition mechanism of PbO on 316L stainless steel is investigated. The evolution of the dissolved oxygen concentration during thermal cycling of LBE indicates that fouling of isothermal surfaces by PbO can only proceed by particle deposition. On the other hand, the fouling of non-isothermal surfaces by PbO is dominated by crystallization fouling. A real-time measurement of the PbO deposition rate shows an asymptotic behavior of PbO crystallization fouling. By predicting the onset of PbO nucleation and subsequent growth, a kinetic model for the crystallization fouling is put forward. Quantitative agreement between deposition rate predictions and validation measurements is obtained around 673 K.
Keywords
Nuclear and High Energy Physics, Mechanical Engineering, Waste Management and Disposal, General Materials Science, Nuclear Energy and Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality, Crystallization fouling, Deposition, Nucleation, Lead-bismuth eutectic, Lead oxide, Accelerator Driven System, POTENTIOMETRIC OXYGEN SENSORS, LIQUID LEAD, PARTICLE DEPOSITION, COKE FORMATION, SOLUBILITY, ELECTRODE, MYRRHA, LBE

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Citation

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MLA
Gladinez, Kristof, et al. “Determination of the Lead Oxide Fouling Mechanisms in Lead Bismuth Eutectic Coolant.” NUCLEAR ENGINEERING AND DESIGN, vol. 357, 2020.
APA
Gladinez, K., Rosseel, K., Lim, J., Shin, Y.-H., Heynderickx, G., & Aerts, A. (2020). Determination of the lead oxide fouling mechanisms in lead bismuth eutectic coolant. NUCLEAR ENGINEERING AND DESIGN, 357.
Chicago author-date
Gladinez, Kristof, Kris Rosseel, Jun Lim, Yong-Hoon Shin, Geraldine Heynderickx, and Alexander Aerts. 2020. “Determination of the Lead Oxide Fouling Mechanisms in Lead Bismuth Eutectic Coolant.” NUCLEAR ENGINEERING AND DESIGN 357.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Gladinez, Kristof, Kris Rosseel, Jun Lim, Yong-Hoon Shin, Geraldine Heynderickx, and Alexander Aerts. 2020. “Determination of the Lead Oxide Fouling Mechanisms in Lead Bismuth Eutectic Coolant.” NUCLEAR ENGINEERING AND DESIGN 357.
Vancouver
1.
Gladinez K, Rosseel K, Lim J, Shin Y-H, Heynderickx G, Aerts A. Determination of the lead oxide fouling mechanisms in lead bismuth eutectic coolant. NUCLEAR ENGINEERING AND DESIGN. 2020;357.
IEEE
[1]
K. Gladinez, K. Rosseel, J. Lim, Y.-H. Shin, G. Heynderickx, and A. Aerts, “Determination of the lead oxide fouling mechanisms in lead bismuth eutectic coolant,” NUCLEAR ENGINEERING AND DESIGN, vol. 357, 2020.
@article{8644573,
  abstract     = {An increased interest in the use of liquid metals for novel energy conversion systems is present today. The Accelerator Driven System (ADS) called MYRRHA under design at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN) is an example of such an innovative system. The use of Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) as a coolant for this reactor implies that an accurate knowledge on the chemical properties of the coolant needs to be available. An important factor is the risk of coolant oxidation due to oxygen ingress in the system. Although the formation of lead oxide (PbO) is well understood, the deposition mechanism and kinetics are not yet studied. In this work the deposition mechanism of PbO on 316L stainless steel is investigated. The evolution of the dissolved oxygen concentration during thermal cycling of LBE indicates that fouling of isothermal surfaces by PbO can only proceed by particle deposition. On the other hand, the fouling of non-isothermal surfaces by PbO is dominated by crystallization fouling. A real-time measurement of the PbO deposition rate shows an asymptotic behavior of PbO crystallization fouling. By predicting the onset of PbO nucleation and subsequent growth, a kinetic model for the crystallization fouling is put forward. Quantitative agreement between deposition rate predictions and validation measurements is obtained around 673 K.},
  articleno    = {110382},
  author       = {Gladinez, Kristof and Rosseel, Kris and Lim, Jun and Shin, Yong-Hoon and Heynderickx, Geraldine and Aerts, Alexander},
  issn         = {0029-5493},
  journal      = {NUCLEAR ENGINEERING AND DESIGN},
  keywords     = {Nuclear and High Energy Physics,Mechanical Engineering,Waste Management and Disposal,General Materials Science,Nuclear Energy and Engineering,Safety,Risk,Reliability and Quality,Crystallization fouling,Deposition,Nucleation,Lead-bismuth eutectic,Lead oxide,Accelerator Driven System,POTENTIOMETRIC OXYGEN SENSORS,LIQUID LEAD,PARTICLE DEPOSITION,COKE FORMATION,SOLUBILITY,ELECTRODE,MYRRHA,LBE},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {12},
  title        = {Determination of the lead oxide fouling mechanisms in lead bismuth eutectic coolant},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nucengdes.2019.110382},
  volume       = {357},
  year         = {2020},
}

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