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Crosslinking of electrospun and bioextruded partially hydrolyzed poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) using glutaraldehyde vapour

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Abstract
Poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline)s (PEtOx) have received substantial attention for various potential biomedical applications, yet they have not been explored as scaffold materials to any extensive degree. A major challenge to open up future applications is to overcome the poor water stability of these materials. We here propose a universal crosslinking strategy for these materials based on a partial acidic hydrolysis of PEtOx to poly[(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline)-co-(ethylenimine)] (PEtOx-EI) followed by exposure to glutaraldehyde vapour to create water-stable scaffolds. To demonstrate the utility of this approach two different fabrication techniques were used to make 2-and 3-dimensional structures, namely solution electrospinning and fused deposition modelling (FDM). Because the partial hydrolysis results in increased hydrophilicity, the crosslinking conditions for the fine PEtOx-EI nanofibers were carefully tuned to enable crosslinking of the nanofibers prior to a loss of the nanofibrous morphology. Conversely, for the thicker FDM printed PEtOx-EI structures the crosslinking conditions are more tolerant. Crosslinking with glutaraldehyde vapour provided water-stability to both 2D and 3D constructs, which is an important asset for biomedical applications.
Keywords
Electrospinning, Fused deposition modelling, Poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline), Glutaraldehyde, Crosslinking, Bioextrusion, TISSUE ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS, 3-DIMENSIONAL SCAFFOLDS, PORE-SIZE, NANOFIBERS, POLY(2-OXAZOLINE)S, FABRICATION, HYDROGELS

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MLA
Kalaoglu Altan, Özlem İpek, et al. “Crosslinking of Electrospun and Bioextruded Partially Hydrolyzed Poly(2-Ethyl-2-Oxazoline) Using Glutaraldehyde Vapour.” EUROPEAN POLYMER JOURNAL, vol. 120, 2019, doi:10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2019.109218.
APA
Kalaoglu Altan, Ö. İ., Li, Y., McMaster, R., Shaw, A., Hou, Z., Vergaelen, M., … De Clerck, K. (2019). Crosslinking of electrospun and bioextruded partially hydrolyzed poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) using glutaraldehyde vapour. EUROPEAN POLYMER JOURNAL, 120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2019.109218
Chicago author-date
Kalaoglu Altan, Özlem İpek, Yin Li, Rebecca McMaster, Aby Shaw, Zhanyao Hou, Maarten Vergaelen, Richard Hoogenboom, Tim R Dargaville, and Karen De Clerck. 2019. “Crosslinking of Electrospun and Bioextruded Partially Hydrolyzed Poly(2-Ethyl-2-Oxazoline) Using Glutaraldehyde Vapour.” EUROPEAN POLYMER JOURNAL 120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2019.109218.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Kalaoglu Altan, Özlem İpek, Yin Li, Rebecca McMaster, Aby Shaw, Zhanyao Hou, Maarten Vergaelen, Richard Hoogenboom, Tim R Dargaville, and Karen De Clerck. 2019. “Crosslinking of Electrospun and Bioextruded Partially Hydrolyzed Poly(2-Ethyl-2-Oxazoline) Using Glutaraldehyde Vapour.” EUROPEAN POLYMER JOURNAL 120. doi:10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2019.109218.
Vancouver
1.
Kalaoglu Altan Öİ, Li Y, McMaster R, Shaw A, Hou Z, Vergaelen M, et al. Crosslinking of electrospun and bioextruded partially hydrolyzed poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) using glutaraldehyde vapour. EUROPEAN POLYMER JOURNAL. 2019;120.
IEEE
[1]
Ö. İ. Kalaoglu Altan et al., “Crosslinking of electrospun and bioextruded partially hydrolyzed poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) using glutaraldehyde vapour,” EUROPEAN POLYMER JOURNAL, vol. 120, 2019.
@article{8644205,
  abstract     = {Poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline)s (PEtOx) have received substantial attention for various potential biomedical applications, yet they have not been explored as scaffold materials to any extensive degree. A major challenge to open up future applications is to overcome the poor water stability of these materials. We here propose a universal crosslinking strategy for these materials based on a partial acidic hydrolysis of PEtOx to poly[(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline)-co-(ethylenimine)] (PEtOx-EI) followed by exposure to glutaraldehyde vapour to create water-stable scaffolds. To demonstrate the utility of this approach two different fabrication techniques were used to make 2-and 3-dimensional structures, namely solution electrospinning and fused deposition modelling (FDM). Because the partial hydrolysis results in increased hydrophilicity, the crosslinking conditions for the fine PEtOx-EI nanofibers were carefully tuned to enable crosslinking of the nanofibers prior to a loss of the nanofibrous morphology. Conversely, for the thicker FDM printed PEtOx-EI structures the crosslinking conditions are more tolerant. Crosslinking with glutaraldehyde vapour provided water-stability to both 2D and 3D constructs, which is an important asset for biomedical applications.},
  articleno    = {109218},
  author       = {Kalaoglu Altan, Özlem İpek and Li, Yin and McMaster, Rebecca and Shaw, Aby and Hou, Zhanyao and Vergaelen, Maarten and Hoogenboom, Richard and Dargaville, Tim R and De Clerck, Karen},
  issn         = {0014-3057},
  journal      = {EUROPEAN POLYMER JOURNAL},
  keywords     = {Electrospinning,Fused deposition modelling,Poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline),Glutaraldehyde,Crosslinking,Bioextrusion,TISSUE ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS,3-DIMENSIONAL SCAFFOLDS,PORE-SIZE,NANOFIBERS,POLY(2-OXAZOLINE)S,FABRICATION,HYDROGELS},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {8},
  title        = {Crosslinking of electrospun and bioextruded partially hydrolyzed poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) using glutaraldehyde vapour},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2019.109218},
  volume       = {120},
  year         = {2019},
}

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