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Swimming practice and scapular kinematics, scapulothoracic muscle activity, and the pressure-pain threshold in young swimmers

(2018) JOURNAL OF ATHLETIC TRAINING. 53(11). p.1056-1062
Author
Organization
Abstract
Context: Whereas alterations in scapular kinematics, scapulothoracic muscle activity, and pain sensitivity have been described in adult swimmers, no researchers have examined these outcomes in young swimmers. Objectives: To compare scapular kinematics, scapulothoracic muscle activation, and the pressure-pain threshold (PPT) of the shoulder muscles among young nonpractitioners (those who were not involved in sports involving the upper limbs), amateur swimmers, and competitive swimmers. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 90 individuals (age = 11.63 +/- 0.61 years) in 3 groups: nonpractitioners, amateur swimmers, and competitive swimmers. Intervention(s): Scapular kinematics and activity of the upper trapezius, lower trapezius, and serratus anterior (SA) were measured during upper extremity elevation in the scapular plane. The PPT was assessed in the upper trapezius, infraspinatus, supraspinatus, middle deltoid, and tibialis anterior. Main Outcome Measure(s): Scapular kinematics, scapulothoracic muscle activation, and PPT. We conducted a 2-way mixed-model analysis of variance and a 1-way analysis of variance for scapular rotation and PPT, respectively. A Kruskal-Wallis test was used to assess muscle activity. The a level was set at .05. Results: Competitive swimmers presented more internal rotation at 908 (P = .03) and 1208 (P = .047) and more anterior tilt at 908 (P = .03) than nonpractitioners. Amateur swimmers demonstrated more anterior tilt at 908 (P = .004) and 1208 (P = .005) than nonpractitioners. Competitive swimmers had greater SA activation in the intervals from 608 to 908 (P = .02) and 908 to 1208 (P = .01) than amateur swimmers. They also displayed more SA activation in the interval from 908 to 1208 than nonpractitioners (P = .04). No differences were found in any of the muscles for the PPT (P > .05). Conclusions: Young competitive swimmers presented alterations in scapular kinematics and scapulothoracic muscle activation during upper extremity elevation that may be due to sport practice. Mechanical pain sensitivity was not altered in young swimmers.
Keywords
biomechanics, shoulder, rehabilitation, athletes, CINEMATOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS, IMPINGEMENT SYNDROME, SHOULDER, RELIABILITY, CHILDREN, EXERCISE, INDIVIDUALS, ORIENTATION, MODULATION, ANTERIOR

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MLA
Habechian, Fernanda AP, et al. “Swimming Practice and Scapular Kinematics, Scapulothoracic Muscle Activity, and the Pressure-Pain Threshold in Young Swimmers.” JOURNAL OF ATHLETIC TRAINING, vol. 53, no. 11, 2018, pp. 1056–62, doi:10.4085/1062-6050-100-17.
APA
Habechian, F. A., Lozana, A. L., Cools, A., & Camargo, P. R. (2018). Swimming practice and scapular kinematics, scapulothoracic muscle activity, and the pressure-pain threshold in young swimmers. JOURNAL OF ATHLETIC TRAINING, 53(11), 1056–1062. https://doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-100-17
Chicago author-date
Habechian, Fernanda AP, Ana Letícia Lozana, Ann Cools, and Paula R Camargo. 2018. “Swimming Practice and Scapular Kinematics, Scapulothoracic Muscle Activity, and the Pressure-Pain Threshold in Young Swimmers.” JOURNAL OF ATHLETIC TRAINING 53 (11): 1056–62. https://doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-100-17.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Habechian, Fernanda AP, Ana Letícia Lozana, Ann Cools, and Paula R Camargo. 2018. “Swimming Practice and Scapular Kinematics, Scapulothoracic Muscle Activity, and the Pressure-Pain Threshold in Young Swimmers.” JOURNAL OF ATHLETIC TRAINING 53 (11): 1056–1062. doi:10.4085/1062-6050-100-17.
Vancouver
1.
Habechian FA, Lozana AL, Cools A, Camargo PR. Swimming practice and scapular kinematics, scapulothoracic muscle activity, and the pressure-pain threshold in young swimmers. JOURNAL OF ATHLETIC TRAINING. 2018;53(11):1056–62.
IEEE
[1]
F. A. Habechian, A. L. Lozana, A. Cools, and P. R. Camargo, “Swimming practice and scapular kinematics, scapulothoracic muscle activity, and the pressure-pain threshold in young swimmers,” JOURNAL OF ATHLETIC TRAINING, vol. 53, no. 11, pp. 1056–1062, 2018.
@article{8643775,
  abstract     = {Context: Whereas alterations in scapular kinematics, scapulothoracic muscle activity, and pain sensitivity have been described in adult swimmers, no researchers have examined these outcomes in young swimmers. 
Objectives: To compare scapular kinematics, scapulothoracic muscle activation, and the pressure-pain threshold (PPT) of the shoulder muscles among young nonpractitioners (those who were not involved in sports involving the upper limbs), amateur swimmers, and competitive swimmers. 
Design: Cross-sectional study. 
Setting: Laboratory. 
Patients or Other Participants: A total of 90 individuals (age = 11.63 +/- 0.61 years) in 3 groups: nonpractitioners, amateur swimmers, and competitive swimmers. 
Intervention(s): Scapular kinematics and activity of the upper trapezius, lower trapezius, and serratus anterior (SA) were measured during upper extremity elevation in the scapular plane. The PPT was assessed in the upper trapezius, infraspinatus, supraspinatus, middle deltoid, and tibialis anterior. 
Main Outcome Measure(s): Scapular kinematics, scapulothoracic muscle activation, and PPT. We conducted a 2-way mixed-model analysis of variance and a 1-way analysis of variance for scapular rotation and PPT, respectively. A Kruskal-Wallis test was used to assess muscle activity. The a level was set at .05. 
Results: Competitive swimmers presented more internal rotation at 908 (P = .03) and 1208 (P = .047) and more anterior tilt at 908 (P = .03) than nonpractitioners. Amateur swimmers demonstrated more anterior tilt at 908 (P = .004) and 1208 (P = .005) than nonpractitioners. Competitive swimmers had greater SA activation in the intervals from 608 to 908 (P = .02) and 908 to 1208 (P = .01) than amateur swimmers. They also displayed more SA activation in the interval from 908 to 1208 than nonpractitioners (P = .04). No differences were found in any of the muscles for the PPT (P > .05). 
Conclusions: Young competitive swimmers presented alterations in scapular kinematics and scapulothoracic muscle activation during upper extremity elevation that may be due to sport practice. Mechanical pain sensitivity was not altered in young swimmers.},
  author       = {Habechian, Fernanda AP and Lozana, Ana Letícia and Cools, Ann and Camargo, Paula R},
  issn         = {1062-6050},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF ATHLETIC TRAINING},
  keywords     = {biomechanics,shoulder,rehabilitation,athletes,CINEMATOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS,IMPINGEMENT SYNDROME,SHOULDER,RELIABILITY,CHILDREN,EXERCISE,INDIVIDUALS,ORIENTATION,MODULATION,ANTERIOR},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {11},
  pages        = {1056--1062},
  title        = {Swimming practice and scapular kinematics, scapulothoracic muscle activity, and the pressure-pain threshold in young swimmers},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-100-17},
  volume       = {53},
  year         = {2018},
}

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