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How does the (re)presentation of instructions influence their implementation?

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Abstract
Instructions are so effective that they can sometimes affect performance beyond the instructed context. Such ‘automatic’ effects of instructions (AEI) have received much interest recently. It has been argued that AEI are restricted to relatively simple and specific S-R tasks or action plans. The present study put this idea further to the test. In a series of experiments based on the NEXT paradigm (Meiran, Pereg, Kessler, Cole, & Braver, 2015a) we investigated the specificity of AEI. In Experiment 1, we presented category-response instructions instead of S-R instructions. Nevertheless, we observed AEI for novel stimuli from the instructed category (Experiment 1a), and abstractness of the category did not modulate the size of the NEXT effect (Experiment 1b). However, Experiment 2 revealed specificity at the response level: AEI were much smaller in conditions where the instructed GO response is semantically related to, but procedurally different from the required NEXT response, compared to a condition where the NEXT and GO responses were the same. Combined, these findings indicate that AEI can occur when S(C)-R instructions are abstract at the stimulus level, arguing against previous proposals. However, AEI does seem to require specificity at the response level. We discuss implications for recent theories of instruction-based learning and AEI.
Keywords
Action and perception, Categorisation, Cognitive Control, Learning

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Citation

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MLA
Longman, Cai S., et al. “How Does the (Re)Presentation of Instructions Influence Their Implementation?” JOURNAL OF COGNITION, vol. 2, no. 1, 2019.
APA
Longman, C. S., Liefooghe, B., & Verbruggen, F. (2019). How does the (re)presentation of instructions influence their implementation? JOURNAL OF COGNITION, 2(1).
Chicago author-date
Longman, Cai S., Baptist Liefooghe, and Frederick Verbruggen. 2019. “How Does the (Re)Presentation of Instructions Influence Their Implementation?” JOURNAL OF COGNITION 2 (1).
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Longman, Cai S., Baptist Liefooghe, and Frederick Verbruggen. 2019. “How Does the (Re)Presentation of Instructions Influence Their Implementation?” JOURNAL OF COGNITION 2 (1).
Vancouver
1.
Longman CS, Liefooghe B, Verbruggen F. How does the (re)presentation of instructions influence their implementation? JOURNAL OF COGNITION. 2019;2(1).
IEEE
[1]
C. S. Longman, B. Liefooghe, and F. Verbruggen, “How does the (re)presentation of instructions influence their implementation?,” JOURNAL OF COGNITION, vol. 2, no. 1, 2019.
@article{8643720,
  abstract     = {Instructions are so effective that they can sometimes affect performance beyond the instructed context. Such ‘automatic’ effects of instructions (AEI) have received much interest recently. It has been argued that AEI are restricted to relatively simple and specific S-R tasks or action plans. The present study put this idea further to the test. In a series of experiments based on the NEXT paradigm (Meiran, Pereg, Kessler, Cole, & Braver, 2015a) we investigated the specificity of AEI. In Experiment 1, we presented category-response instructions instead of S-R instructions. Nevertheless, we observed AEI for novel stimuli from the instructed category (Experiment 1a), and abstractness of the category did not modulate the size of the NEXT effect (Experiment 1b). However, Experiment 2 revealed specificity at the response level: AEI were much smaller in conditions where the instructed GO response is semantically related to, but procedurally different from the required NEXT response, compared to a condition where the NEXT and GO responses were the same. Combined, these findings indicate that AEI can occur when S(C)-R instructions are abstract at the stimulus level, arguing against previous proposals. However, AEI does seem to require specificity at the response level. We discuss implications for recent theories of instruction-based learning and AEI.},
  articleno    = {10},
  author       = {Longman, Cai S. and Liefooghe, Baptist and Verbruggen, Frederick},
  issn         = {2514-4820},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF COGNITION},
  keywords     = {Action and perception,Categorisation,Cognitive Control,Learning},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {19},
  title        = {How does the (re)presentation of instructions influence their implementation?},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.5334/joc.63},
  volume       = {2},
  year         = {2019},
}

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