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Late Roman Civil War and the African grain supply

(2019) JOURNAL OF LATE ANTIQUITY. 12(2). p.298-328
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Abstract
The aim of this article is to reexamine the use of the African grain supply during late Roman civil wars. The main point of contention is that while cutting off the African grain supply to Italy could make a sporadic difference during civil war, most of the time this tactic was, in fact, not considered. Moreover, even when it was used, the results could be devastating yet insufficient to achieve the strategic aims it pursued. Nevertheless, during the transition from the fourth into the fifth century, there was a slight but conspicuous intensification of this method. This chronology is not coincidental and suggests a correlation between North Africa's growing importance at a time the imperial West was at bay. More importantly, the increased use of this tactic can also be linked to the changing nature of late Roman civil wars in the western Mediterranean.

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MLA
Wijnendaele, Jeroen. “Late Roman Civil War and the African Grain Supply.” JOURNAL OF LATE ANTIQUITY, vol. 12, no. 2, 2019, pp. 298–328.
APA
Wijnendaele, J. (2019). Late Roman Civil War and the African grain supply. JOURNAL OF LATE ANTIQUITY, 12(2), 298–328.
Chicago author-date
Wijnendaele, Jeroen. 2019. “Late Roman Civil War and the African Grain Supply.” JOURNAL OF LATE ANTIQUITY 12 (2): 298–328.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Wijnendaele, Jeroen. 2019. “Late Roman Civil War and the African Grain Supply.” JOURNAL OF LATE ANTIQUITY 12 (2): 298–328.
Vancouver
1.
Wijnendaele J. Late Roman Civil War and the African grain supply. JOURNAL OF LATE ANTIQUITY. 2019;12(2):298–328.
IEEE
[1]
J. Wijnendaele, “Late Roman Civil War and the African grain supply,” JOURNAL OF LATE ANTIQUITY, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 298–328, 2019.
@article{8643713,
  abstract     = {The aim of this article is to reexamine the use of the African grain supply during late Roman civil wars. The main point of contention is that while cutting off the African grain supply to Italy could make a sporadic difference during civil war, most of the time this tactic was, in fact, not considered. Moreover, even when it was used, the results could be devastating yet insufficient to achieve the strategic aims it pursued. Nevertheless, during the transition from the fourth into the fifth century, there was a slight but conspicuous intensification of this method. This chronology is not coincidental and suggests a correlation between North Africa's growing importance at a time the imperial West was at bay. More importantly, the increased use of this tactic can also be linked to the changing nature of late Roman civil wars in the western Mediterranean.},
  author       = {Wijnendaele, Jeroen},
  issn         = {1939-6716},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF LATE ANTIQUITY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {298--328},
  title        = {Late Roman Civil War and the African grain supply},
  volume       = {12},
  year         = {2019},
}