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Parental desire and fertility preservation in assigned male at birth transgender people living in Belgium

Justine Defreyne (UGent) , Judith Van Schuylenbergh (UGent) , Joz Motmans (UGent) , Kelly Tilleman (UGent) and Guy T'Sjoen (UGent)
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Abstract
Introduction: Transgender people who chose to proceed with gender affirming hormonal and/or surgical therapy, may face reduced options for fulfilling their parental desire in the future. The ideas and concerns of adult transgender people regarding fertility preservation and parental desire have never been reported in a large, non-clinical sample of assigned male at birth (AMAB) transgender people. Methods: A web-based survey on fertility and parenthood in (binary and non-binary) transgender people was conducted in Belgium. AMAB people were selected for this analysis. Results: We included 254 AMAB persons, of which 196 (77.2%) self-identified as transgender women (TW), 14 (5.5%) as cross-dressers and 44 (17.3%) as gender non-binary (GNB) people. Fifty-five (21.6%) respondents had a current/future parental desire, parental desire was already fulfilled in 81 (31.9%) and not present in 57 people (22.4%) (other: 19.2%). TW were more likely to express a parental desire, compared to GNB people and cross-dressers (P = 0.004). In total, 196 AMAB people previously sought medical assistance, of which 30 (15.3%) considered the loss of fertility due to the transitioning process undesirable. The majority (68.2%) did not want fertility preservation (FP). Fourteen people (9.8%) had proceeded with FP. The main reasons not to proceed with FP included not feeling the need (70; 68.0%), not desiring a genetic link with (future) child(ren) (20; 19.4%) and having to postpone hormone treatment (15; 14.6%). TW were more likely to have a parental desire and to have cryopreserved or to consider cryopreserving gametes, compared to GNB people. Conclusion: Parental desire and FP use were lower in the current non-clinical sample than in previous research on clinical samples. This can possibly be explained by the barriers transgender people face when considering fertility options, including postponing hormone therapy. Also, GNB persons have different needs for gender affirming treatment and FP.
Keywords
cryopreservation, fertility, gender non-binary, parental desire, reproductive technologies, transgender, QUALITY-OF-LIFE, SEX REASSIGNMENT SURGERY, HORMONAL-THERAPY, HEALTH, TRANSSEXUALS, INDIVIDUALS, OUTCOMES, OPTIONS, CARE, MEN

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MLA
Defreyne, Justine, et al. “Parental Desire and Fertility Preservation in Assigned Male at Birth Transgender People Living in Belgium.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF TRANSGENDER HEALTH, vol. 21, no. 1, 2020, pp. 45–57, doi:10.1080/15532739.2019.1692750.
APA
Defreyne, J., Van Schuylenbergh, J., Motmans, J., Tilleman, K., & T’Sjoen, G. (2020). Parental desire and fertility preservation in assigned male at birth transgender people living in Belgium. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF TRANSGENDER HEALTH, 21(1), 45–57. https://doi.org/10.1080/15532739.2019.1692750
Chicago author-date
Defreyne, Justine, Judith Van Schuylenbergh, Joz Motmans, Kelly Tilleman, and Guy T’Sjoen. 2020. “Parental Desire and Fertility Preservation in Assigned Male at Birth Transgender People Living in Belgium.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF TRANSGENDER HEALTH 21 (1): 45–57. https://doi.org/10.1080/15532739.2019.1692750.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Defreyne, Justine, Judith Van Schuylenbergh, Joz Motmans, Kelly Tilleman, and Guy T’Sjoen. 2020. “Parental Desire and Fertility Preservation in Assigned Male at Birth Transgender People Living in Belgium.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF TRANSGENDER HEALTH 21 (1): 45–57. doi:10.1080/15532739.2019.1692750.
Vancouver
1.
Defreyne J, Van Schuylenbergh J, Motmans J, Tilleman K, T’Sjoen G. Parental desire and fertility preservation in assigned male at birth transgender people living in Belgium. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF TRANSGENDER HEALTH. 2020;21(1):45–57.
IEEE
[1]
J. Defreyne, J. Van Schuylenbergh, J. Motmans, K. Tilleman, and G. T’Sjoen, “Parental desire and fertility preservation in assigned male at birth transgender people living in Belgium,” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF TRANSGENDER HEALTH, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 45–57, 2020.
@article{8643187,
  abstract     = {Introduction: Transgender people who chose to proceed with gender affirming hormonal and/or surgical therapy, may face reduced options for fulfilling their parental desire in the future. The ideas and concerns of adult transgender people regarding fertility preservation and parental desire have never been reported in a large, non-clinical sample of assigned male at birth (AMAB) transgender people.

Methods: A web-based survey on fertility and parenthood in (binary and non-binary) transgender people was conducted in Belgium. AMAB people were selected for this analysis.

Results: We included 254 AMAB persons, of which 196 (77.2%) self-identified as transgender women (TW), 14 (5.5%) as cross-dressers and 44 (17.3%) as gender non-binary (GNB) people. Fifty-five (21.6%) respondents had a current/future parental desire, parental desire was already fulfilled in 81 (31.9%) and not present in 57 people (22.4%) (other: 19.2%). TW were more likely to express a parental desire, compared to GNB people and cross-dressers (P = 0.004). In total, 196 AMAB people previously sought medical assistance, of which 30 (15.3%) considered the loss of fertility due to the transitioning process undesirable. The majority (68.2%) did not want fertility preservation (FP). Fourteen people (9.8%) had proceeded with FP. The main reasons not to proceed with FP included not feeling the need (70; 68.0%), not desiring a genetic link with (future) child(ren) (20; 19.4%) and having to postpone hormone treatment (15; 14.6%). TW were more likely to have a parental desire and to have cryopreserved or to consider cryopreserving gametes, compared to GNB people.

Conclusion: Parental desire and FP use were lower in the current non-clinical sample than in previous research on clinical samples. This can possibly be explained by the barriers transgender people face when considering fertility options, including postponing hormone therapy. Also, GNB persons have different needs for gender affirming treatment and FP.},
  author       = {Defreyne, Justine and Van Schuylenbergh, Judith and Motmans, Joz and Tilleman, Kelly and T'Sjoen, Guy},
  issn         = {2689-5269},
  journal      = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF TRANSGENDER HEALTH},
  keywords     = {cryopreservation,fertility,gender non-binary,parental desire,reproductive technologies,transgender,QUALITY-OF-LIFE,SEX REASSIGNMENT SURGERY,HORMONAL-THERAPY,HEALTH,TRANSSEXUALS,INDIVIDUALS,OUTCOMES,OPTIONS,CARE,MEN},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {45--57},
  title        = {Parental desire and fertility preservation in assigned male at birth transgender people living in Belgium},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15532739.2019.1692750},
  volume       = {21},
  year         = {2020},
}

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