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Sex differences in the patterning of age-related bone loss in the human hallucal metatarsal in rural and urban populations

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Abstract
Objectives Age-degenerative features of the metatarsals are poorly known despite the importance of metatarsal bone properties for investigating mobility patterns. We assessed the role of habitual activity in shaping the patterning and magnitude of sexual dimorphism in age-related bone loss in the hallucal metatarsal. Materials and methods Cross-sections were extracted at midshaft from micro-computed tomography scan models of individuals from medieval rural (Abingdon Vineyard) and early industrial urban (Spitalfields) settings (n = 71). A suite of cross-sectional geometry dimensions and biomechanical properties were compared between populations. Results The rural group display generally stronger and larger metatarsals that show a greater capacity to resist torsion and that have comparatively greater bending strength along the medio-lateral plane. Men in both groups show greater values of cortical area than women, but only in the urban group do men show lower magnitudes of age-related decline compared to females. Women in rural and urban populations show different patterns of age-related decline in bone mass, particularly old women in the urban group show a marked decline in cortical area that is absent for women in the rural group. Discussion Lifetime exposure to hard, physical activity in an agricultural setting has contributed to the attainment of greater bone mass and stronger bones in young adults. Furthermore, over the life-course, less of this greater amount of bone is lost, such that sustained activity levels may have acted to buffer against age-related decline, and this is most pronounced for women, who are expected to experience greater bone loss later in life than men.
Keywords
bone function adaptation, diaphyseal cross-section, foot, mobility, sexual dimorphism, CROSS-SECTIONAL GEOMETRY, MINERAL DENSITY, CORTICAL BONE, LONG-BONE, PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY, FAT MASS, IN-VIVO, SIMILAR-TO-6150 YEARS, PERIMENOPAUSAL WOMEN, POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

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MLA
Wilson, Laura A. B., et al. “Sex Differences in the Patterning of Age-Related Bone Loss in the Human Hallucal Metatarsal in Rural and Urban Populations.” AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, vol. 171, no. 4, 2020, pp. 628–44, doi:10.1002/ajpa.24002.
APA
Wilson, L. A. B., De Groote, I., & Humphrey, L. T. (2020). Sex differences in the patterning of age-related bone loss in the human hallucal metatarsal in rural and urban populations. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, 171(4), 628–644. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24002
Chicago author-date
Wilson, Laura A. B., Isabelle De Groote, and Louise T. Humphrey. 2020. “Sex Differences in the Patterning of Age-Related Bone Loss in the Human Hallucal Metatarsal in Rural and Urban Populations.” AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 171 (4): 628–44. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24002.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Wilson, Laura A. B., Isabelle De Groote, and Louise T. Humphrey. 2020. “Sex Differences in the Patterning of Age-Related Bone Loss in the Human Hallucal Metatarsal in Rural and Urban Populations.” AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 171 (4): 628–644. doi:10.1002/ajpa.24002.
Vancouver
1.
Wilson LAB, De Groote I, Humphrey LT. Sex differences in the patterning of age-related bone loss in the human hallucal metatarsal in rural and urban populations. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY. 2020;171(4):628–44.
IEEE
[1]
L. A. B. Wilson, I. De Groote, and L. T. Humphrey, “Sex differences in the patterning of age-related bone loss in the human hallucal metatarsal in rural and urban populations,” AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, vol. 171, no. 4, pp. 628–644, 2020.
@article{8643032,
  abstract     = {Objectives Age-degenerative features of the metatarsals are poorly known despite the importance of metatarsal bone properties for investigating mobility patterns. We assessed the role of habitual activity in shaping the patterning and magnitude of sexual dimorphism in age-related bone loss in the hallucal metatarsal. Materials and methods Cross-sections were extracted at midshaft from micro-computed tomography scan models of individuals from medieval rural (Abingdon Vineyard) and early industrial urban (Spitalfields) settings (n = 71). A suite of cross-sectional geometry dimensions and biomechanical properties were compared between populations. Results The rural group display generally stronger and larger metatarsals that show a greater capacity to resist torsion and that have comparatively greater bending strength along the medio-lateral plane. Men in both groups show greater values of cortical area than women, but only in the urban group do men show lower magnitudes of age-related decline compared to females. Women in rural and urban populations show different patterns of age-related decline in bone mass, particularly old women in the urban group show a marked decline in cortical area that is absent for women in the rural group. Discussion Lifetime exposure to hard, physical activity in an agricultural setting has contributed to the attainment of greater bone mass and stronger bones in young adults. Furthermore, over the life-course, less of this greater amount of bone is lost, such that sustained activity levels may have acted to buffer against age-related decline, and this is most pronounced for women, who are expected to experience greater bone loss later in life than men.},
  author       = {Wilson, Laura A. B. and De Groote, Isabelle and Humphrey, Louise T.},
  issn         = {0002-9483},
  journal      = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY},
  keywords     = {bone function adaptation,diaphyseal cross-section,foot,mobility,sexual dimorphism,CROSS-SECTIONAL GEOMETRY,MINERAL DENSITY,CORTICAL BONE,LONG-BONE,PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY,FAT MASS,IN-VIVO,SIMILAR-TO-6150 YEARS,PERIMENOPAUSAL WOMEN,POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {628--644},
  title        = {Sex differences in the patterning of age-related bone loss in the human hallucal metatarsal in rural and urban populations},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24002},
  volume       = {171},
  year         = {2020},
}

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