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Neoproterozoic origin and multiple transitions to macroscopic growth in green seaweeds

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Abstract
<jats:p>The Neoproterozoic Era records the transition from a largely bacterial to a predominantly eukaryotic phototrophic world, creating the foundation for the complex benthic ecosystems that have sustained Metazoa from the Ediacaran Period onward. This study focuses on the evolutionary origins of green seaweeds, which play an important ecological role in the benthos of modern sunlit oceans and likely played a crucial part in the evolution of early animals by structuring benthic habitats and providing novel niches. By applying a phylogenomic approach, we resolve deep relationships of the core Chlorophyta (Ulvophyceae or green seaweeds, and freshwater or terrestrial Chlorophyceae and Trebouxiophyceae) and unveil a rapid radiation of Chlorophyceae and the principal lineages of the Ulvophyceae late in the Neoproterozoic Era. Our time-calibrated tree points to an origin and early diversification of green seaweeds in the late Tonian and Cryogenian periods, an interval marked by two global glaciations with strong consequent changes in the amount of available marine benthic habitat. We hypothesize that unicellular and simple multicellular ancestors of green seaweeds survived these extreme climate events in isolated refugia, and diversified in benthic environments that became increasingly available as ice retreated. An increased supply of nutrients and biotic interactions, such as grazing pressure, likely triggered the independent evolution of macroscopic growth via different strategies, including true multicellularity, and multiple types of giant-celled forms.</jats:p>
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Multidisciplinary

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MLA
Del Cortona, Andrea, et al. “Neoproterozoic Origin and Multiple Transitions to Macroscopic Growth in Green Seaweeds.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 117, no. 5, 2020, pp. 2551–59.
APA
Del Cortona, A., Jackson, C. J., Bucchini, F., Van Bel, M., D’hondt, S., Škaloud, P., … Leliaert, F. (2020). Neoproterozoic origin and multiple transitions to macroscopic growth in green seaweeds. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117(5), 2551–2559.
Chicago author-date
Del Cortona, Andrea, Christopher J. Jackson, François Bucchini, Michiel Van Bel, Sofie D’hondt, Pavel Škaloud, Charles F. Delwiche, et al. 2020. “Neoproterozoic Origin and Multiple Transitions to Macroscopic Growth in Green Seaweeds.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 117 (5): 2551–59.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Del Cortona, Andrea, Christopher J. Jackson, François Bucchini, Michiel Van Bel, Sofie D’hondt, Pavel Škaloud, Charles F. Delwiche, Andrew H. Knoll, John A. Raven, Heroen Verbruggen, Klaas Vandepoele, Olivier De Clerck, and Frédérik Leliaert. 2020. “Neoproterozoic Origin and Multiple Transitions to Macroscopic Growth in Green Seaweeds.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 117 (5): 2551–2559.
Vancouver
1.
Del Cortona A, Jackson CJ, Bucchini F, Van Bel M, D’hondt S, Škaloud P, et al. Neoproterozoic origin and multiple transitions to macroscopic growth in green seaweeds. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2020;117(5):2551–9.
IEEE
[1]
A. Del Cortona et al., “Neoproterozoic origin and multiple transitions to macroscopic growth in green seaweeds,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 117, no. 5, pp. 2551–2559, 2020.
@article{8642561,
  abstract     = {<jats:p>The Neoproterozoic Era records the transition from a largely bacterial to a predominantly eukaryotic phototrophic world, creating the foundation for the complex benthic ecosystems that have sustained Metazoa from the Ediacaran Period onward. This study focuses on the evolutionary origins of green seaweeds, which play an important ecological role in the benthos of modern sunlit oceans and likely played a crucial part in the evolution of early animals by structuring benthic habitats and providing novel niches. By applying a phylogenomic approach, we resolve deep relationships of the core Chlorophyta (Ulvophyceae or green seaweeds, and freshwater or terrestrial Chlorophyceae and Trebouxiophyceae) and unveil a rapid radiation of Chlorophyceae and the principal lineages of the Ulvophyceae late in the Neoproterozoic Era. Our time-calibrated tree points to an origin and early diversification of green seaweeds in the late Tonian and Cryogenian periods, an interval marked by two global glaciations with strong consequent changes in the amount of available marine benthic habitat. We hypothesize that unicellular and simple multicellular ancestors of green seaweeds survived these extreme climate events in isolated refugia, and diversified in benthic environments that became increasingly available as ice retreated. An increased supply of nutrients and biotic interactions, such as grazing pressure, likely triggered the independent evolution of macroscopic growth via different strategies, including true multicellularity, and multiple types of giant-celled forms.</jats:p>},
  author       = {Del Cortona, Andrea and Jackson, Christopher J. and Bucchini, François and Van Bel, Michiel and D’hondt, Sofie and Škaloud, Pavel and Delwiche, Charles F. and Knoll, Andrew H. and Raven, John A. and Verbruggen, Heroen and Vandepoele, Klaas and De Clerck, Olivier and Leliaert, Frédérik},
  issn         = {0027-8424},
  journal      = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences},
  keywords     = {Multidisciplinary},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {5},
  pages        = {2551--2559},
  title        = {Neoproterozoic origin and multiple transitions to macroscopic growth in green seaweeds},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1910060117},
  volume       = {117},
  year         = {2020},
}

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