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PaCTS 1.0 : a crowdsourced reporting standard for paleoclimate data

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Abstract
The progress of science is tied to the standardization of measurements, instruments, and data. This is especially true in the Big Data age, where analyzing large data volumes critically hinges on the data being standardized. Accordingly, the lack of community-sanctioned data standards in paleoclimatology has largely precluded the benefits of Big Data advances in the field. Building upon recent efforts to standardize the format and terminology of paleoclimate data, this article describes the Paleoclimate Community reporTing Standard (PaCTS), a crowdsourced reporting standard for such data. PaCTS captures which information should be included when reporting paleoclimate data, with the goal of maximizing the reuse value of paleoclimate data sets, particularly for synthesis work and comparison to climate model simulations. Initiated by the LinkedEarth project, the process to elicit a reporting standard involved an international workshop in 2016, various forms of digital community engagement over the next few years, and grassroots working groups. Participants in this process identified important properties across paleoclimate archives, in addition to the reporting of uncertainties and chronologies; they also identified archive-specific properties and distinguished reporting standards for new versus legacy data sets. This work shows that at least 135 respondents overwhelmingly support a drastic increase in the amount of metadata accompanying paleoclimate data sets. Since such goals are at odds with present practices, we discuss a transparent path toward implementing or revising these recommendations in the near future, using both bottom-up and top-down approaches.
Keywords
TECHNICAL NOTE, FRAMEWORK, CLIMATE, standards, FAIR, paleoclimate, paleoceanography, data, best practices

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MLA
Khider, D., et al. “PaCTS 1.0 : A Crowdsourced Reporting Standard for Paleoclimate Data.” PALEOCEANOGRAPHY AND PALEOCLIMATOLOGY, vol. 34, no. 10, 2019, pp. 1570–96.
APA
Khider, D., Emile-Geay, J., McKay, N. P., Gil, Y., Garijo, D., Ratnakar, V., … Zhou, Y. (2019). PaCTS 1.0 : a crowdsourced reporting standard for paleoclimate data. PALEOCEANOGRAPHY AND PALEOCLIMATOLOGY, 34(10), 1570–1596.
Chicago author-date
Khider, D., J. Emile-Geay, N. P. McKay, Y. Gil, D. Garijo, V Ratnakar, M. Alonso-Garcia, et al. 2019. “PaCTS 1.0 : A Crowdsourced Reporting Standard for Paleoclimate Data.” PALEOCEANOGRAPHY AND PALEOCLIMATOLOGY 34 (10): 1570–96.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Khider, D., J. Emile-Geay, N. P. McKay, Y. Gil, D. Garijo, V Ratnakar, M. Alonso-Garcia, Sebastien Bertrand, O. Bothe, P. Brewer, A. Bunn, M. Chevalier, L. Comas-Bru, A. Csank, E. Dassie, K. DeLong, T. Felis, P. Francus, A. Frappier, W. Gray, S. Goring, L. Jonkers, M. Kahle, D. Kaufman, N. M. Kehrwald, B. Martrat, H. McGregor, J. Richey, A. Schmittner, N. Scroxton, E. Sutherland, K. Thirumalai, K. Allen, F. Arnaud, Y. Axford, T. Barrows, L. Bazin, S. E. Pilaar Birch, E. Bradley, J. Bregy, E. Capron, O. Cartapanis, H-W Chiang, K. M. Cobb, M. Debret, R. Dommain, J. Du, K. Dyez, S. Emerick, M. P. Erb, G. Falster, W. Finsinger, D. Fortier, Nicolas Gauthier, S. George, E. Grimm, J. Hertzberg, F. Hibbert, A. Hillman, W. Hobbs, M. Huber, A. L. C. Hughes, S. Jaccard, J. Ruan, M. Kienast, B. Konecky, G. Le Roux, V Lyubchich, V. F. Novello, L. Olaka, J. W. Partin, C. Pearce, S. J. Phipps, C. Pignol, N. Piotrowska, M-S Poli, A. Prokopenko, F. Schwanck, C. Stepanek, G. E. A. Swann, R. Telford, E. Thomas, Z. Thomas, S. Truebe, L. von Gunten, A. Waite, N. Weitzel, B. Wilhelm, J. Williams, M. Winstrup, N. Zhao, and Y. Zhou. 2019. “PaCTS 1.0 : A Crowdsourced Reporting Standard for Paleoclimate Data.” PALEOCEANOGRAPHY AND PALEOCLIMATOLOGY 34 (10): 1570–1596.
Vancouver
1.
Khider D, Emile-Geay J, McKay NP, Gil Y, Garijo D, Ratnakar V, et al. PaCTS 1.0 : a crowdsourced reporting standard for paleoclimate data. PALEOCEANOGRAPHY AND PALEOCLIMATOLOGY. 2019;34(10):1570–96.
IEEE
[1]
D. Khider et al., “PaCTS 1.0 : a crowdsourced reporting standard for paleoclimate data,” PALEOCEANOGRAPHY AND PALEOCLIMATOLOGY, vol. 34, no. 10, pp. 1570–1596, 2019.
@article{8641741,
  abstract     = {{The progress of science is tied to the standardization of measurements, instruments, and data. This is especially true in the Big Data age, where analyzing large data volumes critically hinges on the data being standardized. Accordingly, the lack of community-sanctioned data standards in paleoclimatology has largely precluded the benefits of Big Data advances in the field. Building upon recent efforts to standardize the format and terminology of paleoclimate data, this article describes the Paleoclimate Community reporTing Standard (PaCTS), a crowdsourced reporting standard for such data. PaCTS captures which information should be included when reporting paleoclimate data, with the goal of maximizing the reuse value of paleoclimate data sets, particularly for synthesis work and comparison to climate model simulations. Initiated by the LinkedEarth project, the process to elicit a reporting standard involved an international workshop in 2016, various forms of digital community engagement over the next few years, and grassroots working groups. Participants in this process identified important properties across paleoclimate archives, in addition to the reporting of uncertainties and chronologies; they also identified archive-specific properties and distinguished reporting standards for new versus legacy data sets. This work shows that at least 135 respondents overwhelmingly support a drastic increase in the amount of metadata accompanying paleoclimate data sets. Since such goals are at odds with present practices, we discuss a transparent path toward implementing or revising these recommendations in the near future, using both bottom-up and top-down approaches.}},
  author       = {{Khider, D. and Emile-Geay, J. and McKay, N. P. and Gil, Y. and Garijo, D. and Ratnakar, V and Alonso-Garcia, M. and Bertrand, Sebastien and Bothe, O. and Brewer, P. and Bunn, A. and Chevalier, M. and Comas-Bru, L. and Csank, A. and Dassie, E. and DeLong, K. and Felis, T. and Francus, P. and Frappier, A. and Gray, W. and Goring, S. and Jonkers, L. and Kahle, M. and Kaufman, D. and Kehrwald, N. M. and Martrat, B. and McGregor, H. and Richey, J. and Schmittner, A. and Scroxton, N. and Sutherland, E. and Thirumalai, K. and Allen, K. and Arnaud, F. and Axford, Y. and Barrows, T. and Bazin, L. and Birch, S. E. Pilaar and Bradley, E. and Bregy, J. and Capron, E. and Cartapanis, O. and Chiang, H-W and Cobb, K. M. and Debret, M. and Dommain, R. and Du, J. and Dyez, K. and Emerick, S. and Erb, M. P. and Falster, G. and Finsinger, W. and Fortier, D. and Gauthier, Nicolas and George, S. and Grimm, E. and Hertzberg, J. and Hibbert, F. and Hillman, A. and Hobbs, W. and Huber, M. and Hughes, A. L. C. and Jaccard, S. and Ruan, J. and Kienast, M. and Konecky, B. and Le Roux, G. and Lyubchich, V and Novello, V. F. and Olaka, L. and Partin, J. W. and Pearce, C. and Phipps, S. J. and Pignol, C. and Piotrowska, N. and Poli, M-S and Prokopenko, A. and Schwanck, F. and Stepanek, C. and Swann, G. E. A. and Telford, R. and Thomas, E. and Thomas, Z. and Truebe, S. and von Gunten, L. and Waite, A. and Weitzel, N. and Wilhelm, B. and Williams, J. and Winstrup, M. and Zhao, N. and Zhou, Y.}},
  issn         = {{2572-4517}},
  journal      = {{PALEOCEANOGRAPHY AND PALEOCLIMATOLOGY}},
  keywords     = {{TECHNICAL NOTE,FRAMEWORK,CLIMATE,standards,FAIR,paleoclimate,paleoceanography,data,best practices}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{10}},
  pages        = {{1570--1596}},
  title        = {{PaCTS 1.0 : a crowdsourced reporting standard for paleoclimate data}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2019PA003632}},
  volume       = {{34}},
  year         = {{2019}},
}

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