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Free will beliefs are better predicted by dualism than determinism beliefs across different cultures

(2019) PLOS ONE. 14(9).
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Abstract
Most people believe in free will. Whether this belief is warranted or not, free will beliefs (FWB) are foundational for many legal systems and reducing FWB has effects on behavior from the motor to the social level. This raises the important question as to which specific FWB people hold. There are many different ways to conceptualize free will, and some might see physical determinism as a threat that might reduce FWB, while others might not. Here, we investigate lay FWB in a large, representative, replicated online survey study in the US and Singapore (n = 1800), assessing differences in FWB with unprecedented depth within and between cultures. Specifically, we assess the relation of FWB, as measured using the Free Will Inventory, to determinism, dualism and related concepts like libertarianism and compatibilism. We find that libertarian, compatibilist, and dualist, intuitions were related to FWB, but that these intuitions were often logically inconsistent. Importantly, direct comparisons suggest that dualism was more predictive of FWB than other intuitions. Thus, believing in free will goes hand-in-hand with a belief in a non-physical mind. Highlighting the importance of dualism for FWB impacts academic debates on free will, which currently largely focus on its relation to determinism. Our findings also shed light on how recent (neuro)scientific findings might impact FWB. Demonstrating physical determinism in the brain need not have a strong impact on FWB, due to a wide-spread belief in dualism.
Keywords
General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, General Agricultural and Biological Sciences, General Medicine, EXPERIMENTAL PHILOSOPHY, FOLK PSYCHOLOGY, MIND, BRAIN, NEUROSCIENCE, INTUITIONS, PEOPLE, AGENCY, SOUL, TIME

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MLA
Wisniewski, David, et al. “Free Will Beliefs Are Better Predicted by Dualism than Determinism Beliefs across Different Cultures.” PLOS ONE, vol. 14, no. 9, 2019.
APA
Wisniewski, D., Deutschländer, R., & Haynes, J.-D. (2019). Free will beliefs are better predicted by dualism than determinism beliefs across different cultures. PLOS ONE, 14(9).
Chicago author-date
Wisniewski, David, Robert Deutschländer, and John-Dylan Haynes. 2019. “Free Will Beliefs Are Better Predicted by Dualism than Determinism Beliefs across Different Cultures.” PLOS ONE 14 (9).
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Wisniewski, David, Robert Deutschländer, and John-Dylan Haynes. 2019. “Free Will Beliefs Are Better Predicted by Dualism than Determinism Beliefs across Different Cultures.” PLOS ONE 14 (9).
Vancouver
1.
Wisniewski D, Deutschländer R, Haynes J-D. Free will beliefs are better predicted by dualism than determinism beliefs across different cultures. PLOS ONE. 2019;14(9).
IEEE
[1]
D. Wisniewski, R. Deutschländer, and J.-D. Haynes, “Free will beliefs are better predicted by dualism than determinism beliefs across different cultures,” PLOS ONE, vol. 14, no. 9, 2019.
@article{8641716,
  abstract     = {Most people believe in free will. Whether this belief is warranted or not, free will beliefs (FWB) are foundational for many legal systems and reducing FWB has effects on behavior from the motor to the social level. This raises the important question as to which specific FWB people hold. There are many different ways to conceptualize free will, and some might see physical determinism as a threat that might reduce FWB, while others might not. Here, we investigate lay FWB in a large, representative, replicated online survey study in the US and Singapore (n = 1800), assessing differences in FWB with unprecedented depth within and between cultures. Specifically, we assess the relation of FWB, as measured using the Free Will Inventory, to determinism, dualism and related concepts like libertarianism and compatibilism. We find that libertarian, compatibilist, and dualist, intuitions were related to FWB, but that these intuitions were often logically inconsistent. Importantly, direct comparisons suggest that dualism was more predictive of FWB than other intuitions. Thus, believing in free will goes hand-in-hand with a belief in a non-physical mind. Highlighting the importance of dualism for FWB impacts academic debates on free will, which currently largely focus on its relation to determinism. Our findings also shed light on how recent (neuro)scientific findings might impact FWB. Demonstrating physical determinism in the brain need not have a strong impact on FWB, due to a wide-spread belief in dualism.},
  articleno    = {e0221617},
  author       = {Wisniewski, David and Deutschländer, Robert and Haynes, John-Dylan},
  issn         = {1932-6203},
  journal      = {PLOS ONE},
  keywords     = {General Biochemistry,Genetics and Molecular Biology,General Agricultural and Biological Sciences,General Medicine,EXPERIMENTAL PHILOSOPHY,FOLK PSYCHOLOGY,MIND,BRAIN,NEUROSCIENCE,INTUITIONS,PEOPLE,AGENCY,SOUL,TIME},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {9},
  pages        = {19},
  title        = {Free will beliefs are better predicted by dualism than determinism beliefs across different cultures},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0221617},
  volume       = {14},
  year         = {2019},
}

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