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The nature of submillimetre and highly star-forming galaxies in the EAGLE simulation

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Abstract
We exploit EAGLE, a cosmological hydrodynamical simulation, to reproduce the selection of the observed submillimetre (submm) galaxy population by selecting the model galaxies at z ≥ 1 with mock submm fluxes S_{850 μ m} ≥ 1 mJy. We find a reasonable agreement between the model galaxies within this sample and the properties of the observed submm population, such as their star formation rates (SFRs) at z < 3, redshift distribution, and many integrated galaxy properties. We find that the median redshift of the S_{850 μ m} ≥ 1 mJy model population is z ≈ 2.5, and that they are massive galaxies (M* ̃ 1011 M☉) with high dust masses (Mdust ̃ 108 M☉), gas fractions (fgas ≈ 50 per cent), and SFRs (\dot{M}_* ≈ 100 M☉ yr-1). In addition, we find that they have major and minor merger fractions similar to the general population, suggesting that mergers are not the sole driver of the high SFRs in the model submm galaxies. Instead, the S_{850 μ m} ≥ 1 mJy model galaxies yield high SFRs primarily because they maintain a significant gas reservoir as a result of hosting an undermassive black hole relative to comparably massive galaxies. Not all `highly star-forming' (\dot{M}_* ≥ 80 M☉ yr-1) EAGLE galaxies have submm fluxes S_{850 μ m} ≥ 1 mJy. We investigate the nature of these highly star-forming `Submm-Faint' galaxies (i.e. \dot{M}_* ≥ 80 M☉ yr-1 but S_{850 μ m} < 1 mJy) and find that they are similar to the model submm galaxies, being gas rich and hosting undermassive black holes. However, they are also typically at higher redshifts (z > 4) and are lower mass (M* ̃ 1010 M☉). These typically higher redshift galaxies show stronger evidence for having been triggered by major mergers, and critically, they are likely missed by most current submm surveys due to their higher dust temperatures and lower dust masses.
Keywords
galaxies: active, galaxies: evolution, galaxies: formation, galaxies: high-redshift, galaxies: starburst, RADIATIVE-TRANSFER CODE, DEEP FIELD SOUTH, ULTRALUMINOUS GALAXIES, LUMINOSITY FUNCTION, BLACK-HOLES, ALMA SURVEY, REDSHIFT, EVOLUTION, STELLAR, POPULATION

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MLA
McAlpine, Stuart, et al. “The Nature of Submillimetre and Highly Star-Forming Galaxies in the EAGLE Simulation.” MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, vol. 488, no. 2, 2019, pp. 2440–54.
APA
McAlpine, S., Smail, I., Bower, R. G., Swinbank, A., Trayford, J. W., Theuns, T., … Schaye, J. (2019). The nature of submillimetre and highly star-forming galaxies in the EAGLE simulation. MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, 488(2), 2440–2454.
Chicago author-date
McAlpine, Stuart, Ian Smail, Richard G Bower, AM Swinbank, James W Trayford, Tom Theuns, Maarten Baes, Peter Camps, Robert A Crain, and Joop Schaye. 2019. “The Nature of Submillimetre and Highly Star-Forming Galaxies in the EAGLE Simulation.” MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 488 (2): 2440–54.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
McAlpine, Stuart, Ian Smail, Richard G Bower, AM Swinbank, James W Trayford, Tom Theuns, Maarten Baes, Peter Camps, Robert A Crain, and Joop Schaye. 2019. “The Nature of Submillimetre and Highly Star-Forming Galaxies in the EAGLE Simulation.” MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 488 (2): 2440–2454.
Vancouver
1.
McAlpine S, Smail I, Bower RG, Swinbank A, Trayford JW, Theuns T, et al. The nature of submillimetre and highly star-forming galaxies in the EAGLE simulation. MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY. 2019;488(2):2440–54.
IEEE
[1]
S. McAlpine et al., “The nature of submillimetre and highly star-forming galaxies in the EAGLE simulation,” MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, vol. 488, no. 2, pp. 2440–2454, 2019.
@article{8641158,
  abstract     = {We exploit EAGLE, a cosmological hydrodynamical simulation, to reproduce the selection of the observed submillimetre (submm) galaxy population by selecting the model galaxies at z ≥ 1 with mock submm fluxes S_{850 μ m} ≥ 1 mJy. We find a reasonable agreement between the model galaxies within this sample and the properties of the observed submm population, such as their star formation rates (SFRs) at z < 3, redshift distribution, and many integrated galaxy properties. We find that the median redshift of the S_{850 μ m} ≥ 1 mJy model population is z ≈ 2.5, and that they are massive galaxies (M* ̃ 1011 M☉) with high dust masses (Mdust ̃ 108 M☉), gas fractions (fgas ≈ 50 per cent), and SFRs (\dot{M}_* ≈ 100 M☉ yr-1). In addition, we find that they have major and minor merger fractions similar to the general population, suggesting that mergers are not the sole driver of the high SFRs in the model submm galaxies. Instead, the S_{850 μ m} ≥ 1 mJy model galaxies yield high SFRs primarily because they maintain a significant gas reservoir as a result of hosting an undermassive black hole relative to comparably massive galaxies. Not all `highly star-forming' (\dot{M}_* ≥ 80 M☉ yr-1) EAGLE galaxies have submm fluxes S_{850 μ m} ≥ 1 mJy. We investigate the nature of these highly star-forming `Submm-Faint' galaxies (i.e. \dot{M}_* ≥ 80 M☉ yr-1 but S_{850 μ m} < 1 mJy) and find that they are similar to the model submm galaxies, being gas rich and hosting undermassive black holes. However, they are also typically at higher redshifts (z > 4) and are lower mass (M* ̃ 1010 M☉). These typically higher redshift galaxies show stronger evidence for having been triggered by major mergers, and critically, they are likely missed by most current submm surveys due to their higher dust temperatures and lower dust masses.},
  author       = {McAlpine, Stuart and Smail, Ian and Bower, Richard G and Swinbank, AM and Trayford, James W and Theuns, Tom and Baes, Maarten and Camps, Peter and Crain, Robert A and Schaye, Joop},
  issn         = {0035-8711},
  journal      = {MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY},
  keywords     = {galaxies: active,galaxies: evolution,galaxies: formation,galaxies: high-redshift,galaxies: starburst,RADIATIVE-TRANSFER CODE,DEEP FIELD SOUTH,ULTRALUMINOUS GALAXIES,LUMINOSITY FUNCTION,BLACK-HOLES,ALMA SURVEY,REDSHIFT,EVOLUTION,STELLAR,POPULATION},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {2440--2454},
  title        = {The nature of submillimetre and highly star-forming galaxies in the EAGLE simulation},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stz1692},
  volume       = {488},
  year         = {2019},
}

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