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Development of an active high-density transverse intrafascicular micro-electrode probe

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Abstract
In this work, the development of an active high-density transverse intrafascicular microelectrode (hd-TIME) probe to interface with the peripheral nervous system is presented. The TIME approach is combined with an active probe chip, resulting in improved selectivity and excellent signal-to-noise ratio. The integrated multiplexing capabilities reduce the number of external electrical connections and facilitate the positioning of the probe during implantation, as the most interesting electrodes of the electrode array can be selected after implantation. The probe chip is packaged using thin-film manufacturing techniques to allow for a minimally invasive electronic package. Special attention is paid to the miniaturization, the mechanical flexibility and the hermetic encapsulation of the device. A customized probe chip was designed and packaged using a flexible, implantable thin electronic package (FITEP) process platform. The platform is specifically developed for making slim, ultra-compliant, implantable complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor based electronic devices. Multilayer stacks of polyimide films and HfO2/Al2O3/HfO2 layers deposited via atomic layer deposition act as bidirectional diffusion barriers and are key to the hermetic encapsulation. Their efficacy was demonstrated both by water vapor transmission rate tests and accelerated immersion tests in phosphate buffered saline at 60 °C. Using the hd-TIME probe, an innovative implantation method is developed to prevent the fascicles from moving away when the epineurium is pierced. In addition, by transversally implanting the hd-TIME probe in the proximal sciatic nerve of a rat, selective activation within the nerve was demonstrated. The FITEP process platform can be applied to a broader range of integrated circuits and can be considered as an enabler for other biomedical applications.
Keywords
active neural probe, transverse intrafascicular micro-electrode (TIME), thin chip, thin-film, hermetic encapsulation, diffusion barrier, atomic layer deposition (ALD)

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MLA
Verplancke, Rik, et al. “Development of an Active High-Density Transverse Intrafascicular Micro-Electrode Probe.” JOURNAL OF MICROMECHANICS AND MICROENGINEERING, vol. 30, no. 1, 2019, pp. 1–13.
APA
Verplancke, R., Cauwe, M., Schaubroeck, D., Cuypers, D., Vandecasteele, B., Mader, L., … Op de Beeck, M. (2019). Development of an active high-density transverse intrafascicular micro-electrode probe. JOURNAL OF MICROMECHANICS AND MICROENGINEERING, 30(1), 1–13.
Chicago author-date
Verplancke, Rik, Maarten Cauwe, David Schaubroeck, Dieter Cuypers, Bjorn Vandecasteele, Lothar Mader, Celine Vanhaverbeke, et al. 2019. “Development of an Active High-Density Transverse Intrafascicular Micro-Electrode Probe.” JOURNAL OF MICROMECHANICS AND MICROENGINEERING 30 (1): 1–13.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Verplancke, Rik, Maarten Cauwe, David Schaubroeck, Dieter Cuypers, Bjorn Vandecasteele, Lothar Mader, Celine Vanhaverbeke, Marco Ballini, John O’Callaghan, Erkuden Goikoetxea, Dries Braeken, Aritra Kundu, Erin Patrick, Nima Maghari, Kevin Otto, Rizwan Bashirullah, and Maaike Op de Beeck. 2019. “Development of an Active High-Density Transverse Intrafascicular Micro-Electrode Probe.” JOURNAL OF MICROMECHANICS AND MICROENGINEERING 30 (1): 1–13.
Vancouver
1.
Verplancke R, Cauwe M, Schaubroeck D, Cuypers D, Vandecasteele B, Mader L, et al. Development of an active high-density transverse intrafascicular micro-electrode probe. JOURNAL OF MICROMECHANICS AND MICROENGINEERING. 2019;30(1):1–13.
IEEE
[1]
R. Verplancke et al., “Development of an active high-density transverse intrafascicular micro-electrode probe,” JOURNAL OF MICROMECHANICS AND MICROENGINEERING, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 1–13, 2019.
@article{8640213,
  abstract     = {In this work, the development of an active high-density transverse intrafascicular microelectrode (hd-TIME) probe to interface with the peripheral nervous system is presented. The TIME approach is combined with an active probe chip, resulting in improved selectivity and excellent signal-to-noise ratio. The integrated multiplexing capabilities reduce the number of external electrical connections and facilitate the positioning of the probe during implantation, as the most interesting electrodes of the electrode array can be selected after implantation. The probe chip is packaged using thin-film manufacturing techniques to allow for a minimally invasive electronic package. Special attention is paid to the miniaturization, the mechanical flexibility and the hermetic encapsulation of the device. A customized probe chip was designed and packaged using a flexible, implantable thin electronic package (FITEP) process platform. The platform is specifically developed for making slim, ultra-compliant, implantable complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor based electronic devices. Multilayer stacks of polyimide films and HfO2/Al2O3/HfO2 layers deposited via atomic layer deposition act as bidirectional diffusion barriers and are key to the hermetic encapsulation. Their efficacy was demonstrated both by water vapor transmission rate tests and accelerated immersion tests in phosphate buffered saline at 60 °C. Using the hd-TIME probe, an innovative implantation method is developed to prevent the fascicles from moving away when the epineurium is pierced. In addition, by transversally implanting the hd-TIME probe in the proximal sciatic nerve of a rat, selective activation within the nerve was demonstrated. The FITEP process platform can be applied to a broader range of integrated circuits and can be considered as an enabler for other biomedical applications.},
  articleno    = {015010},
  author       = {Verplancke, Rik and Cauwe, Maarten and Schaubroeck, David and Cuypers, Dieter and Vandecasteele, Bjorn and Mader, Lothar and Vanhaverbeke, Celine and Ballini, Marco and O’Callaghan, John and Goikoetxea, Erkuden and Braeken, Dries and Kundu, Aritra and Patrick, Erin and Maghari, Nima and Otto, Kevin and Bashirullah, Rizwan and Op de Beeck, Maaike},
  issn         = {0960-1317},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF MICROMECHANICS AND MICROENGINEERING},
  keywords     = {active neural probe,transverse intrafascicular micro-electrode (TIME),thin chip,thin-film,hermetic encapsulation,diffusion barrier,atomic layer deposition (ALD)},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {015010:1--015010:13},
  title        = {Development of an active high-density transverse intrafascicular micro-electrode probe},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6439/ab5df2},
  volume       = {30},
  year         = {2019},
}

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