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Determining the provenance of the European glass beads of Lumbu (Mbanza Kongo, Angola)

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Abstract
A collection of glass beads found in Lumbu (Mbanza Kongo, Angola) were analyzed by means of a multi-analytical minimally invasive methodology, which included handheld X-ray fluorescence (hXRF), variable pressure scanning electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (VP-SEM-EDS), micro-Raman spectroscopy and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Trace element analysis, and rare earth element pattern analysis in particular, was found to be essential to establish the provenance of the European trade beads in this study. The glass beads from types 30, 31, 32, 36, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43 and 45 were found to have been produced in Venice, and the glass beads from types 26 and 28 have been assigned to the Bohemian glass industry. While determining the provenance of each glass artefact was a major goal of this study, the process of glass coloring and opacification was also studied in an attempt to establish the technology employed in the production of these artefacts. Chemical data indicate that cobalt and copper were used to produce blue hues, while a combination of copper and iron ions was used to produce green glass. Black colored glass was obtained by the combined use of iron and manganese ions, whereas the iron-sulfur chromophore was used to impart a distinct amber hue to the glass. Red was produced using trace amounts of metallic gold particles (ruby red glass) and metallic copper nano-particles or cuprous oxide (brownish-red glass). Lead arsenates, calcium phosphate, and cassiterite were used as opacifying agents. The use of both morphological and chemical analysis enabled the identification of distinct European production centers, allowing a glimpse into the consumption patterns and economic interactions in place between Europe and West-Central Africa throughout the 17th-19th centuries.
Keywords
Sourcing, LA-ICP-MS, European trade beads, Mbanza Kongo, Kongo Kingdom, ROMAN GLASS, BRONZE-AGE, RAMAN IDENTIFICATION, SOUTHERN AFRICA, ANCIENT, SPECTROSCOPY, ERZGEBIRGE, CERAMICS, OPACIFIERS, CHEMISTRY

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MLA
Barrocas Dias Teixeira da Costa, Mafalda, et al. “Determining the Provenance of the European Glass Beads of Lumbu (Mbanza Kongo, Angola).” MICROCHEMICAL JOURNAL, vol. 154, 2020, doi:10.1016/j.microc.2019.104531.
APA
Barrocas Dias Teixeira da Costa, M., Barrulas, P., Dias, L., Lopes, M. da C., Barreira, J., Clist, B.-O., … Mirão, J. (2020). Determining the provenance of the European glass beads of Lumbu (Mbanza Kongo, Angola). MICROCHEMICAL JOURNAL, 154. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.microc.2019.104531
Chicago author-date
Barrocas Dias Teixeira da Costa, Mafalda, Pedro Barrulas, Luís Dias, Maria da Conceição Lopes, João Barreira, Bernard-Olivier Clist, Karlis Karklins, et al. 2020. “Determining the Provenance of the European Glass Beads of Lumbu (Mbanza Kongo, Angola).” MICROCHEMICAL JOURNAL 154. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.microc.2019.104531.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Barrocas Dias Teixeira da Costa, Mafalda, Pedro Barrulas, Luís Dias, Maria da Conceição Lopes, João Barreira, Bernard-Olivier Clist, Karlis Karklins, Maria da Piedade de Jesus, Sónia da Silva Domingos, Luc Moens, Peter Vandenabeele, and José Mirão. 2020. “Determining the Provenance of the European Glass Beads of Lumbu (Mbanza Kongo, Angola).” MICROCHEMICAL JOURNAL 154. doi:10.1016/j.microc.2019.104531.
Vancouver
1.
Barrocas Dias Teixeira da Costa M, Barrulas P, Dias L, Lopes M da C, Barreira J, Clist B-O, et al. Determining the provenance of the European glass beads of Lumbu (Mbanza Kongo, Angola). MICROCHEMICAL JOURNAL. 2020;154.
IEEE
[1]
M. Barrocas Dias Teixeira da Costa et al., “Determining the provenance of the European glass beads of Lumbu (Mbanza Kongo, Angola),” MICROCHEMICAL JOURNAL, vol. 154, 2020.
@article{8640075,
  abstract     = {A collection of glass beads found in Lumbu (Mbanza Kongo, Angola) were analyzed by means of a multi-analytical minimally invasive methodology, which included handheld X-ray fluorescence (hXRF), variable pressure scanning electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (VP-SEM-EDS), micro-Raman spectroscopy and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS).

Trace element analysis, and rare earth element pattern analysis in particular, was found to be essential to establish the provenance of the European trade beads in this study. The glass beads from types 30, 31, 32, 36, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43 and 45 were found to have been produced in Venice, and the glass beads from types 26 and 28 have been assigned to the Bohemian glass industry.

While determining the provenance of each glass artefact was a major goal of this study, the process of glass coloring and opacification was also studied in an attempt to establish the technology employed in the production of these artefacts. Chemical data indicate that cobalt and copper were used to produce blue hues, while a combination of copper and iron ions was used to produce green glass. Black colored glass was obtained by the combined use of iron and manganese ions, whereas the iron-sulfur chromophore was used to impart a distinct amber hue to the glass. Red was produced using trace amounts of metallic gold particles (ruby red glass) and metallic copper nano-particles or cuprous oxide (brownish-red glass). Lead arsenates, calcium phosphate, and cassiterite were used as opacifying agents.

The use of both morphological and chemical analysis enabled the identification of distinct European production centers, allowing a glimpse into the consumption patterns and economic interactions in place between Europe and West-Central Africa throughout the 17th-19th centuries.},
  articleno    = {104531},
  author       = {Barrocas Dias Teixeira da Costa, Mafalda and Barrulas, Pedro and Dias, Luís and Lopes, Maria da Conceição and Barreira, João and Clist, Bernard-Olivier and Karklins, Karlis and de Jesus, Maria da Piedade and da Silva Domingos, Sónia and Moens, Luc and Vandenabeele, Peter and Mirão, José},
  issn         = {0026-265X},
  journal      = {MICROCHEMICAL JOURNAL},
  keywords     = {Sourcing,LA-ICP-MS,European trade beads,Mbanza Kongo,Kongo Kingdom,ROMAN GLASS,BRONZE-AGE,RAMAN IDENTIFICATION,SOUTHERN AFRICA,ANCIENT,SPECTROSCOPY,ERZGEBIRGE,CERAMICS,OPACIFIERS,CHEMISTRY},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {12},
  title        = {Determining the provenance of the European glass beads of Lumbu (Mbanza Kongo, Angola)},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.microc.2019.104531},
  volume       = {154},
  year         = {2020},
}

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