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Determination of magnetic motor evoked potential latency time cutoff values for detection of spinal cord dysfunction in horses

Joke Rijckaert, Bart Pardon (UGent) , Veronique Saey (UGent) , Els Raes (UGent) , Luc Van Ham (UGent) , Richard Ducatelle (UGent) , Gunther van Loon (UGent) and Piet Deprez (UGent)
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Abstract
Background: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and recording of magnetic motor evoked potentials (MMEP) can detect neurological dysfunction in horses but cutoff values based on confirmed spinal cord dysfunction are lacking. Objectives: To determine latency time cutoff for neurological dysfunction. Animals Five control horses and 17 horses with proprioceptive ataxia. Methods: Case-control study with receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, based on diagnostic imaging, TMS, and histopathological findings. Horses were included if all 3 examinations were performed. Results: Diagnostic imaging and histopathology did not show abnormalities in the control group but confirmed spinal cord compression in 14 of 17 ataxic horses. In the remaining 3 horses, histopathological lesions were mild to severe, but diagnostic imaging did not confirm spinal cord compression. In control horses, latency time values of thoracic and pelvic limbs were significantly lower than in ataxic horses (20 +/- 1 vs 34 +/- 16 milliseconds, P = .05; and 39 +/- 1 vs 78 +/- 26 milliseconds, P = .004). Optimal cutoff values to detect spinal cord dysfunction were 22 milliseconds (sensitivity [95% CI interval], 88% [73%-100%]; specificity, 100% [100%-100%]) in thoracic and 40 milliseconds (sensitivity, 94% [83%-100%]; specificity, 100% [100%-100%]) in pelvic limbs. To detect spinal cord dysfunction caused by compression, the optimal cutoff for thoracic limbs remained 22 milliseconds, while it increased to 43 milliseconds in pelvic limbs (sensitivity, 100% [100%-100%]; specificity, 100% [100%-100%] for thoracic and pelvic limbs). Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Magnetic motor evoked potential analysis using these cutoff values is a promising diagnostic tool for spinal cord dysfunction diagnosis in horses.
Keywords
VERTEBRAL COMPRESSIVE MYELOPATHY, SAGITTAL DIAMETER RATIOS, CLINICAL, SIGNS, STENOTIC MYELOPATHY, DOBERMAN-PINSCHERS, STIMULATION, MALFORMATION, SEVERITY, BREED, DOGS, ataxia, cervical radiographs, cervical vertebral malformation, myelogram, transcranial magnetic stimulation

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MLA
Rijckaert, Joke, et al. “Determination of Magnetic Motor Evoked Potential Latency Time Cutoff Values for Detection of Spinal Cord Dysfunction in Horses.” JOURNAL OF VETERINARY INTERNAL MEDICINE, vol. 33, no. 5, 2019, pp. 2312–18.
APA
Rijckaert, J., Pardon, B., Saey, V., Raes, E., Van Ham, L., Ducatelle, R., … Deprez, P. (2019). Determination of magnetic motor evoked potential latency time cutoff values for detection of spinal cord dysfunction in horses. JOURNAL OF VETERINARY INTERNAL MEDICINE, 33(5), 2312–2318.
Chicago author-date
Rijckaert, Joke, Bart Pardon, Veronique Saey, Els Raes, Luc Van Ham, Richard Ducatelle, Gunther van Loon, and Piet Deprez. 2019. “Determination of Magnetic Motor Evoked Potential Latency Time Cutoff Values for Detection of Spinal Cord Dysfunction in Horses.” JOURNAL OF VETERINARY INTERNAL MEDICINE 33 (5): 2312–18.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Rijckaert, Joke, Bart Pardon, Veronique Saey, Els Raes, Luc Van Ham, Richard Ducatelle, Gunther van Loon, and Piet Deprez. 2019. “Determination of Magnetic Motor Evoked Potential Latency Time Cutoff Values for Detection of Spinal Cord Dysfunction in Horses.” JOURNAL OF VETERINARY INTERNAL MEDICINE 33 (5): 2312–2318.
Vancouver
1.
Rijckaert J, Pardon B, Saey V, Raes E, Van Ham L, Ducatelle R, et al. Determination of magnetic motor evoked potential latency time cutoff values for detection of spinal cord dysfunction in horses. JOURNAL OF VETERINARY INTERNAL MEDICINE. 2019;33(5):2312–8.
IEEE
[1]
J. Rijckaert et al., “Determination of magnetic motor evoked potential latency time cutoff values for detection of spinal cord dysfunction in horses,” JOURNAL OF VETERINARY INTERNAL MEDICINE, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 2312–2318, 2019.
@article{8638664,
  abstract     = {{Background: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and recording of magnetic motor evoked potentials (MMEP) can detect neurological dysfunction in horses but cutoff values based on confirmed spinal cord dysfunction are lacking.
Objectives: To determine latency time cutoff for neurological dysfunction. Animals Five control horses and 17 horses with proprioceptive ataxia.
Methods: Case-control study with receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, based on diagnostic imaging, TMS, and histopathological findings. Horses were included if all 3 examinations were performed.
Results: Diagnostic imaging and histopathology did not show abnormalities in the control group but confirmed spinal cord compression in 14 of 17 ataxic horses. In the remaining 3 horses, histopathological lesions were mild to severe, but diagnostic imaging did not confirm spinal cord compression. In control horses, latency time values of thoracic and pelvic limbs were significantly lower than in ataxic horses (20 +/- 1 vs 34 +/- 16 milliseconds, P = .05; and 39 +/- 1 vs 78 +/- 26 milliseconds, P = .004). Optimal cutoff values to detect spinal cord dysfunction were 22 milliseconds (sensitivity [95% CI interval], 88% [73%-100%]; specificity, 100% [100%-100%]) in thoracic and 40 milliseconds (sensitivity, 94% [83%-100%]; specificity, 100% [100%-100%]) in pelvic limbs. To detect spinal cord dysfunction caused by compression, the optimal cutoff for thoracic limbs remained 22 milliseconds, while it increased to 43 milliseconds in pelvic limbs (sensitivity, 100% [100%-100%]; specificity, 100% [100%-100%] for thoracic and pelvic limbs).
Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Magnetic motor evoked potential analysis using these cutoff values is a promising diagnostic tool for spinal cord dysfunction diagnosis in horses.}},
  author       = {{Rijckaert, Joke and Pardon, Bart and Saey, Veronique and Raes, Els and Van Ham, Luc and Ducatelle, Richard and van Loon, Gunther and Deprez, Piet}},
  issn         = {{0891-6640}},
  journal      = {{JOURNAL OF VETERINARY INTERNAL MEDICINE}},
  keywords     = {{VERTEBRAL COMPRESSIVE MYELOPATHY,SAGITTAL DIAMETER RATIOS,CLINICAL,SIGNS,STENOTIC MYELOPATHY,DOBERMAN-PINSCHERS,STIMULATION,MALFORMATION,SEVERITY,BREED,DOGS,ataxia,cervical radiographs,cervical vertebral malformation,myelogram,transcranial magnetic stimulation}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{5}},
  pages        = {{2312--2318}},
  title        = {{Determination of magnetic motor evoked potential latency time cutoff values for detection of spinal cord dysfunction in horses}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvim.15576}},
  volume       = {{33}},
  year         = {{2019}},
}

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