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A corpus-driven study of the expression of necessity in Luganda (Bantu, JE15)

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Abstract
This article reports on the analysis of three major markers of necessity in Luganda, i.e. the modal auxiliaries -téekw- and -lina and the verbal prefix -andi-. On the basis a 4-million-word corpus it is argued that, overall, the auxiliary -téekw- is more established as a necessity marker, as it is involved in the expression of all necessity sub-categories except participant-inherent dynamic necessity. The auxiliary -lina is less semantically diversified, expressing only participant-imposed, situational and deontic necessity, while the verbal prefix -andi- expresses only deontic necessity. Comparison of corpus data with data from older literature on Luganda further shows that the objective category of participant-inherent dynamic necessity, which is not associated with any of the three markers described, is perhaps expressed by less-grammaticalized forms. These forms are also, together with other grammaticalized forms that have increasingly become rare, assumed to be part of the devices that could have been responsible for expressing necessity in earlier stages of the language, given that the three markers described in this research have only begun to meaningfully express necessity since the second half of the 20th century.
Keywords
necessity, grammaticalization, subjectification, corpus-driven, Luganda, Bantu

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MLA
Kawalya, Deo, et al. “A Corpus-Driven Study of the Expression of Necessity in Luganda (Bantu, JE15).” SOUTHERN AFRICAN LINGUISTICS AND APPLIED LANGUAGE STUDIES, vol. 37, no. 4, 2019, pp. 361–81, doi:10.2989/16073614.2019.1697624.
APA
Kawalya, D., de Schryver, G.-M., & Bostoen, K. (2019). A corpus-driven study of the expression of necessity in Luganda (Bantu, JE15). SOUTHERN AFRICAN LINGUISTICS AND APPLIED LANGUAGE STUDIES, 37(4), 361–381. https://doi.org/10.2989/16073614.2019.1697624
Chicago author-date
Kawalya, Deo, Gilles-Maurice de Schryver, and Koen Bostoen. 2019. “A Corpus-Driven Study of the Expression of Necessity in Luganda (Bantu, JE15).” SOUTHERN AFRICAN LINGUISTICS AND APPLIED LANGUAGE STUDIES 37 (4): 361–81. https://doi.org/10.2989/16073614.2019.1697624.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Kawalya, Deo, Gilles-Maurice de Schryver, and Koen Bostoen. 2019. “A Corpus-Driven Study of the Expression of Necessity in Luganda (Bantu, JE15).” SOUTHERN AFRICAN LINGUISTICS AND APPLIED LANGUAGE STUDIES 37 (4): 361–381. doi:10.2989/16073614.2019.1697624.
Vancouver
1.
Kawalya D, de Schryver G-M, Bostoen K. A corpus-driven study of the expression of necessity in Luganda (Bantu, JE15). SOUTHERN AFRICAN LINGUISTICS AND APPLIED LANGUAGE STUDIES. 2019;37(4):361–81.
IEEE
[1]
D. Kawalya, G.-M. de Schryver, and K. Bostoen, “A corpus-driven study of the expression of necessity in Luganda (Bantu, JE15),” SOUTHERN AFRICAN LINGUISTICS AND APPLIED LANGUAGE STUDIES, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 361–381, 2019.
@article{8638629,
  abstract     = {{This article reports on the analysis of three major markers of necessity in Luganda, i.e. the modal auxiliaries -téekw- and -lina and the verbal prefix -andi-. On the basis a 4-million-word corpus it is argued that, overall, the auxiliary -téekw- is more established as a necessity marker, as it is involved in the expression of all necessity sub-categories except participant-inherent dynamic necessity. The auxiliary -lina is less semantically diversified, expressing only participant-imposed, situational and deontic necessity, while the verbal prefix -andi- expresses only deontic necessity. Comparison of corpus data with data from older literature on Luganda further shows that the objective category of participant-inherent dynamic necessity, which is not associated with any of the three markers described, is perhaps expressed by less-grammaticalized forms. These forms are also, together with other grammaticalized forms that have increasingly become rare, assumed to be part of the devices that could have been responsible for expressing necessity in earlier stages of the language, given that the three markers described in this research have only begun to meaningfully express necessity since the second half of the 20th century.}},
  author       = {{Kawalya, Deo and de Schryver, Gilles-Maurice and Bostoen, Koen}},
  issn         = {{1607-3614}},
  journal      = {{SOUTHERN AFRICAN LINGUISTICS AND APPLIED LANGUAGE STUDIES}},
  keywords     = {{necessity,grammaticalization,subjectification,corpus-driven,Luganda,Bantu}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{4}},
  pages        = {{361--381}},
  title        = {{A corpus-driven study of the expression of necessity in Luganda (Bantu, JE15)}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.2989/16073614.2019.1697624}},
  volume       = {{37}},
  year         = {{2019}},
}

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